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Water


An important nutrient 75 to 80 percent of our total body is water.


The total body fluid is distributed among two major components

Extracellular fluid: contain sodium

Intercellular fluid: contain potassium


Hydrogen & Oxygen in the ratio 2:1 form water


Sources: Visible & Invisible water.

• Visible water that we can see are- plain water, fruit juices, tea, milk, coffee, etc

• Invisible water that is inside the food s & metabolic water.


Function

• Water quenched our thirst and is the most refreshing & cooling of all liquids.

• It is a structural component of all cells.

• Water is a medium in which all chemical reaction takes place.

• It is an essential component of all body fluid such as blood, cerebrospinal fluid, bile, digestive fluid, urine.

• It acts as a lubricant & helps us in swallowing food or to digest food.

• It acts as a solvent for the products of digestion & helps in transporting this product in different parts of the body.

• It regulates body temperature.

• It helps to throw the waste product from the body.


Water Balance

In a normal individual, the maintenance of water balance is archived by adjusting both water intake & excretion as needed.


The major inputs of water are:

• Fluids that we consume as beverages, including water depending on climatic conditions & habits.

• Different types of foods & fruits that we take in solid form.

• Metabolic water.


Output or loss of water from the body:

• Renal loss: Kidneys excrete about 1-2 litre of water daily

• Skin: The water loss from the skin is through perspiration.

• Intestine: A small quantity of water is normally losses in faeces.

• Lungs: The air expired from the lungs also contains water.

• Sweat: It depends on physical activity & environmental conditions.


Daily intake & output of water

Intake

ml/day

Output

ml/day

The fluid we take

2200

Skin

350

From metabolism

200

Lungs

350



Sweat

100



Faeces

100



Urine

1500

Total

2,400


2,400


Dehydration

It is defined as an excessive loss of body water. It may occur because of inadequate intake of, or abnormal loss of body water or a combination of both.


The symptoms of dehydration are:

• Thirst

• Loss of appetite

• Decreased urination

• Nausea

• Impaired temperature regulation

• Muscular spasms

• Increased pulse rate


Symptoms of severe dehydration appear when Fluid level falls by more than 10%. A 20% loss of fluid from the body can be fatal.


A dehydrated person is usually managed by Oral Rehydration Therapy (ORT). The WHO recommended ORS (Oral Rehydration Salt) that are to be dissolved in 1 litre of water & make an Oral Rehydration Solution & have to be finished within 24 hours. He also can take HAF. (Home Available Fluid)


Home Available Fluid

Normally we prepared in home 1 glass of water + 2 spoon sugar + a pinch of salt + few drops of lime juice (lime juice contained potassium & salt contain sodium which helps to maintain the equilibriums among intracellular & extracellular fluid.)


ORS (WHO) for 1 litre

Content

Amount in gm

Glucose

20.0

Sodium Chloride (salt)

3.5

Sodium bicarbonate (baking soda)

1.5

Potassium chloride

1.5

A minimum of +8 glass of water is recommended daily.

Excess of water causes oedema. (Swelling of the skin)


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