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Nutrition | Solved Paper | 2017-18 | 1st Sem B.Sc HHA

Topic Wise Notes: Nutrition


Please note: The answers provided below, are just for reference. Always consult your college professor if you have any queries.

 

Q.1. Explain BMR and enlist factor affecting individual BMR.

The amount of energy required by the body for carrying out involuntary work and maintaining body temperature is known as the basal metabolic rate (BMR). The involuntary work includes the functioning of various organs and system which work continuously to keep the body processes going such as the heart and blood circulation, the kidneys and excretion. Approximately one-third of this energy is needed for these processes while the remaining two- thirds is utilized for maintenance of muscle tone.

Factors affecting the BMR

Body size Heat is continuously lost through the skin. A tall well-built person has a greater skin surface area than a shorter or smaller person and loses more heat through the skin and hence has a higher BMR.

Body composition The amount of muscle tissue and adipose or fatty tissue in the body affects the BMR. An athlete with well-built muscles and little body fat has a higher BMR than a non-athlete with more body fat of the same weight. The metabolic activity in muscle tissue or lean tissue is much more as compared to adipose or fatty tissue.

Age During periods of rapid growth, the BMR increases by 15-20% because the growth hormone stimulates cell metabolism and new cells are formed. It is high during infancy, pre-school years, and puberty. During pregnancy and location, it rapidly increases once again. The BMR gradually decline with age at the rate of 2% for each decade after the age of 21 years.

Sex The BMR is 10% higher in males as compared to females. The difference in BMR is attributed to a higher proportion of adipose tissue in females and hormonal variations between the sexes.

Fever Fever increases the BMR by 7% for each degree Fahrenheit rise in body temperature. This is one of the reasons for the loss of weight during fever.

State of health The BMR is low during starvation and malnutrition because of the reduction in muscle tissue. In diseases and conditions where catabolic processes are high such as cancers, tuberculosis, and burns, BMR is high.

Hormones Disorders of the thyroid gland markedly influence the BMR. Hyperthyroidism, a condition of excessive production of thyroid hormone increases BMR, and hypothyroidism or decreased production of thyroid hormone decreases BMR.

Climate BMR rises when the climate is cold to maintain normal body temperature. In very warm climates leading to profuse sweating, BMR may increase by trying to reduce body temperature.

Psychological tension Worry and anxiety increase BMR.

OR Discuss the Physiological and Psychological and Social functions of food.

Physiological functions

Following are some physiological functions of food:

Providing Energy:

The first function of the food is to provide energy. Our body needs the energy to sustain the involuntary processes essential for the continuance of life, to carry out professional, household and recreational activities, to convert food ingested into usable nutrients in the body, to grow and to keep warm. The energy needed is supplied by the oxidation of the foods consumed.

Body Building:

One of the most important functions of food is building the body. Foods rich in protein are called bodybuilding foods. Milk, meat, eggs, and fish are rich in proteins of high quality. Pulses and nuts are good sources of protein but the protein is not of high quality. These foods help to maintain life and promote growth. They also supply energy.

Regulatory Function:

Another function of food is to regulate various activities of the body. It includes the regulation of varied activities such as:

  • Heartbeat

  • Muscle contraction

  • Maintenance of the body temperature.

  • Control of water balance

  • Clotting of blood

  • Removal of waste products from the body

To improve our body’s resistance to disease is also one of the physiological functions of food.

Social functions

Food has always been the central part of our community, social, cultural and religious life. It has been an expression of love, friendship, and happiness at religious, social and family get-togethers. Many of the occasions are related to special foods like Birthdays, Holi, Diwali, Lohari, Eid, etc

Food is served almost on all social events like marriages, parties, get-together, official meetings, etc., in the form of tea, breakfasts, banquet, dinner, etc. On all these occasions, food indirectly serves as a powerful and effective instrument for developing social rapport.

Food is the common link in a meeting, party or get-together that attracts people to come to such social gatherings. Refreshment served even at official meetings creates a relaxed atmosphere, where people can exchange their views. The menu for such get-to-gather should bring the people together, rather than divide them. Foods help to strengthen mutual friendship.

Food also has a specific significance and meaning in the religious context. Certain food items such as fruits, sweets, and coconut are offered to the deity in temples. Often sweets are prepared at temples and gurudwaras and distributed to devote as a benediction or prasad.

Further, people of a given religious community share a common eating pattern. This is because religious texts and practices strongly recommend some foods while rejecting others. Food thus becomes an integral part of the social and religious life of people.

The social function of foods can be seen daily like in many of the family there is a dining culture as all the family members unite to have dinner wich creates a good relationship among them.

Psychological functions

In addition to satisfying physical and social needs, foods also satisfy certain emotional needs of human beings. These include a sense of security, love, and acceptance. For example, the preparation of delicious foods for family members is a token of love and affection.

The person begins to associate the food habits and foods commonly consumed by him, as it gives him a sense of security and satiety. The foods daily eaten by us, give us more mental satisfaction, even a nutritional balanced meal may not be satisfying to the individual if food include is unfamiliar or distasteful to him/her.

In a friendly gathering, one may try unfamiliar foods and thus enlarge our food experiences. During the course of time and repeated experience, strange foods become familiar and new tastes are formed. These new tastes are developed should again be satisfying to the mind. For example, a person accustomed to traditional Indian cuisine takes time to adjust to Chinese or western dishes but feels mentally satisfied at the sight of familiar foods.

Food is used to express feelings of special attention, friendship, recognition or punishment. Some peoples are addicted to any specific food and they want that to satisfy themselves. Few have habits of dessert after every meal which is related to their psychological needs. Some peoples eat a lot in anger or frustration. In all these situations food has psychological importance.

Thus it can be concluded that food performs various important functions from satisfying the hunger to building mutual understanding and above all helps to maintain our health and adequate nutritional status.

 

Q.2. Energy balance is important for healthy living. Discuss.

A person in energy balance neither gains weight nor loses weight. Excessive consumption of calories as compared to the output or activity leads to a condition called overweight, which in severe cases is called obesity. The deficient intake of carbohydrates and fats in the diet leads to underweight or under nutrition. Both underweight and obesity are undesirable conditions that need timely correction.

Energy balance is a condition in which the energy provided by food is nearly equal to the total energy expended by the body resulting in steady body weight.

Energy balance: Energy output = Energy input

Overweight

Overweight and obesity affect over 25% of adults in developed countries and can lead to serious health consequences if not treated early. When an individual’s energy intake consistently exceeds energy expenditure, weight gain occurs initially, leading to obesity. Since energy can neither be created nor destroyed but can be changed from one form to another, the excess chemical energy from food is converted into fat and stored as potential energy in the adipose tissues.

Overweight: A person whose body weight is 10% more than the prescribed height for weight standards for his age and sex is considered as overweight.

Obese: A person whose body weight is 20% or more than that of the prescribed standard is considered as obese.

Grossly obese: A person who weighs 45kg or 100% more than accepted standards.

Causes of obesity

• Family food habits – rich high-calorie foods • Ignoring the calorific value of food • Skips breakfast, gobbles high-calorie snacks • Sedentary lifestyle • Lower metabolism with increasing age but failed to reduce intake • Emotional outlet: eats more to overcome worry, stress, etc. • Attend many social events • Distress eating ( to avoid wastage)

Risks of being overweight

Excess weight may increase the risk for following health problems

  • type 2 diabetes

  • high blood pressure

  • heart disease and strokes

  • certain types of cancer

  • sleep apnea

  • osteoarthritis

  • fatty liver disease

  • kidney disease

  • pregnancy problems, such as high blood sugar during pregnancy, high blood pressure, and increased risk for cesarean delivery (C-section)

Underweight

People having a body mass index (BMI) of under 18.5 or a weight 15% to 20% below that normal for their age and height group are considered to be underweight.

Causes

Underweight is caused due to under-nutrition which is the result of ingesting an insufficient quantity of food. An energy intake less than the need, are the most common cause. Other causes for underweight are poor assimilation of food due to digestive disorders, faulty absorption, intestinal infections, poor food habits, stress and tension, poverty and lack of nutrition knowledge.

Risks of being underweight

Not all people who are underweight experience adverse side effects or symptoms from being underweight. However, some people, experience the following symptoms related to being underweight:

Osteoporosis: Being underweight increases a woman’s risk of osteoporosis, which is where the bones are brittle and more prone to breaking.

Skin, hair, or teeth problems: If a person does not get enough nutrients in their daily diet, they may display physical symptoms, such as thinning skin, hair loss, dry skin, or poor dental health.

Getting sick frequently: If a person does not get enough energy from their diet to maintain healthy body weight, they may also not be getting enough nutrients to fight off infections. As a result, a person may get sick more frequently, and common illnesses, such as a cold, can last longer than they usually would.

Feeling tired all the time: Calories are a measurement of the energy a particular food can give a person. Not getting enough calories to maintain a healthy weight can make a person feel fatigued.

Anemia: A person who is underweight is more likely to have low blood counts, known as anemia, which causes dizziness, headaches, and fatigue.

Irregular periods: Women who are underweight may not have regular periods, they may find menstruation stops or an adolescent’s first period may be delayed or absent.

OR Enlist various functions of water in maintaining good health.

  • Water quenched our thirst and is the most refreshing & cooling of all liquids.

  • It is a structural component of all cells.

  • Water is a medium in which all chemical reaction takes place.

  • It is an essential component of all body fluid such as blood, cerebrospinal fluid, bile, digestive fluid, urine.

  • It acts as a lubricant & helps us in swallowing food or to digest food.

  • It acts as a solvent for the products of digestion & helps in transporting this product in different parts of the body.

  • It regulates body temperature.

  • It helps to throw the waste product from the body.

 

Q.3. How would you classify carbohydrates? Explain giving examples of each.

Carbohydrates are broadly classified into two categories i.e. simple carbohydrates and complex carbohydrates.

Simple Carbohydrates vs Complex Carbohydrates:

Simple Carbohydrate

Complex Carbohydrate

Simple carbohydrates contain single molecule or smaller chains of sugar.

Complex carbohydrates contain longer chains of sugar molecules than simple carbohydrates.

Simple carbohydrates are quicker to digest than complex carbohydrates.

Complex carbohydrates take longer to digest and are a more stable source of energy.

Simple carbohydrates are in foods such as table sugar and syrups.

Complex carbohydrates are present in foods such as bread and pasta.

Milk and milk products contain simple carbohydrate. These foods do not contain fiber but are rich in protein, calcium, and vitamin D

Complex carbohydrates found in whole foods tend to be highly nutritious.

Classification of carbohydrates on the basis of their structure and function are:

Monosaccharide

The monosaccharides are the simplest of the carbohydrates since they contain only one polyhydroxy aldehyde or ketone unit and cannot be further hydrolyzed into simpler units. (Mono: one, Saccharide: sugar).

There are two major classes of monosaccharides: 1. Aldoses: Sugars containing an aldehydic group are known as aldoses, e.g., Glucose, galactose, mannose, and glycerose. 2. Ketoses: Sugars containing a ketonic group are known as ketoses. e.g., Dihydroxyacetone, fructose, and ribulose.

Disaccharide

Sugars containing two monosaccharides linked through glycosidic bond are known as disaccharides. The three most common disaccharides are:

Maltose

α-D-glucose + α-D-glucose = Maltose Also known as malt sugar. It is found in germinating grain (such as barley) and is formed during the hydrolysis of starch to glucose during digestion.

Lactose

β-D-galactose + α-D-glucose = Lactose It is present in milk hence, known as milk sugar. Lactose constitutes 5% of cow’s milk and 7% of human milk. It is digested by the enzyme lactase.

Sucrose

α-D-glucose + β-D-fructose = Sucrose Also known as table sugar. Both anomeric carbons of glucose and fructose are tied together in the glycosidic linkage. Sucrose is abundant in sugar cane and sugar beets; maple syrup contains about 65% sucrose, with glucose and fructose present as well; caramel is the solid residue formed from heating sucrose.

Oligosaccharide

Oligosaccharides contain from 3 to 10 monosaccharide units. Oligosaccharides can have many functions including cell recognition and cell binding. Raffinose is an example of oligosaccharide. β-D-galactose + α-D-glucose + β-D-fructose = Raffinose An oligosaccharide found in peas and beans; largely undigested until reaching the intestinal flora in the large intestine, releasing hydrogen, carbon dioxide, and methane).

Polysaccharide

Carbohydrates made up of more than 10 monosaccharide units are called polysaccharides. They are also known as glycans.

They are further classified as homopolysaccharides and heteropolysaccharides.

Homopolysaccharides:

Those polysaccharides which contain only one kind of monosaccharide unit are called homopolysaccharides. e.g., starch, glycogen, cellulose, dextran, inulin, agar, chitin, etc.

  • Starch: Starch is a polymer consisting of D-glucose units. Starches (and other glucose polymers) are usually insoluble in water because of the high molecular weight, but they can form thick colloidal suspensions with water. It is the chief carbohydrates present in plants and forms the main source of dietary energy sources to humans.

  • Glycogen: Glycogen, also known as animal starch, is made up of α-D-glucose units linked by α-1 → 4 linkages in the linear and α-1 → 6 linkages at the branching points. Glycogen is abundant in the liver and muscles; on hydrolysis, it forms glucose, which maintains normal blood sugar level and provides energy.

  • Cellulose: Cellulose is a polymer consisting of long, unbranched chains of D-glucose connected by β(1→4) glycosidic linkages. It is the most abundant carbohydrate in nature. It forms the woods of the plant. Cellulase enzyme is absent in human being and hence it becomes non-utilizable.

Heteropolysaccharides:

heteropolysaccharides (heteroglycans) contain two or more different monosaccharide units. Usually, they provide extracellular support for organisms of all kingdoms: the cell envelope of bacteria, or the matrix that holds individual cells together in animal tissues, and provides protection, shape, and support to cells, tissues, and organs. They include chondroitin sulfate, hyaluronic acid, and heparin.

OR Discuss the functions of dietary fibers with example and sources.

Dietary fiber is a type of carbohydrate that cannot be digested by our bodies’ enzymes. It is found in edible plant foods such as cereals, fruits, vegetables, dried peas, nuts, lentils, and grains. Fiber is grouped by its physical properties and is called soluble, insoluble or resistant starch. All three types of fiber have important roles to play.

Significance of Dietary fiber

Fiber helps to keep our digestive system healthy and helps to prevent constipation. For example, fiber bulks up stools, make stools softer and easier to pass and make the waste move through the digestive tract more quickly.

Cardiovascular disease (heart disease and stroke) and type 2 diabetes: Foods such as oats and barley contain a type of fiber known as beta-glucan, which may help to reduce cholesterol levels if you consume 3g or more of it daily, as part of a healthy diet.

Research has increasingly shown how important the bacteria in our gut may be to our health, and it has been suggested that a fiber-rich diet can help increase the good bacteria in the gut. Some fiber types provide a food source for ‘friendly’ gut bacteria helping them to increase and produce substances that are thought to be protective such as short-chain fatty acids.

Dietary fiber play role in energy intake control and reduced risk for the development of obesity. The role of dietary fiber in energy intake regulation and obesity development is related to its unique physical and chemical properties that aid in early signals of satiation and enhanced or prolonged signals of satiety.

Functions

Benefits

Adds bulk to the diet, making feel full faster

May reduce appetite

Attracts water and turns to gel during digestion, trapping carbohydrates and slowing absorption of glucose

Lowers variance in blood sugar levels

Lowers total and LDL cholesterol

Reduces risk of heart disease

Regulates blood pressure

May reduce onset risk or symptoms of metabolic syndrome and diabetes

Speeds the passage of foods through the digestive system

Facilitates regularity

Adds bulk to stool

Alleviates constipation

Balances intestinal pH and stimulates intestinal fermentation production of short-chain fatty acids

May reduce risk of colorectal cancers

Sources of Dietary Fiber

Fiber-rich foods include: Wholegrain breakfast cereals, wholewheat pasta, wholegrain bread and oats, barley and rye Fruit such as berries, pears, melon and oranges Vegetables such as broccoli, carrots, and sweetcorn Peas, beans, and pulses Nuts and seeds Potatoes with skin

 

Q.4. Classify vitamins and enumerate the functions of vitamin A in body alongwith its important sources.

Vitamins are organic molecules that are essential for normal health and growth. They are required in trace amounts and must be obtained from the diet because they are not synthesized in the body.

  • Organic molecules with a wide variety of functions.

  • Cofactors for enzymatic reactions

Before vitamins were discovered, it was known that lime juice prevented the disease scurvy in sailors and that cod liver oil could prevent rickets. In 1912, scientists found that, in addition to carbohydrates, fats, and proteins, certain other factors called vitamins must be obtained from the diet.

Two distinct types:

  • Water-soluble

water-soluble vitamin is one that dissolves in water and as a result, is easily absorbed into the tissues of the body and metabolized more quickly than fat-soluble vitamins.

  • Fat-soluble

The fat soluble vitamins are soluble in lipids (fats). These vitamins are usually absorbed in fat globules that travel through the lymphatic system of the small intestines and into the general blood circulation within the body.

Vitamin A

vitamin A; includes retinol, retinal, retinyl esters, and retinoic acid and is also referred to as “preformed” vitamin A. Beta carotene can easily be converted to vitamin A as needed.

  • Function: Essential for vision Lycopene may lower prostate cancer risk. Keeps tissues and skin healthy. Plays an important role in bone growth and the immune system. Diets rich in the carotenoids alpha-carotene and lycopene seem to lower lung cancer risk. Carotenoids act as antioxidants. Foods rich in the carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin may protect against cataracts.

  • Food Sources: Sources of retinoids: beef liver, eggs, shrimp, fish, fortified milk, butter, cheddar cheese, Swiss cheese Sources of beta carotene: sweet potatoes, carrots, pumpkins, squash, spinach, mangoes, turnip greens, and almost all green vegetables.

  • Deficiency: Deficiency of Vitamin A called Night Blindness.

OR Discuss cholesterol in our body. What are the various functions of body fats?

Cholesterol

  • It is a fat-like substance present in food.

  • It is different in structure from triglycerides, as it has a ring structure. It is present in all cells of the body and large amounts in the brain and nerve tissue.

  • Cholesterol, if consumed in excess is responsible for diseases of the cardiovascular system.

  • The normal blood cholesterol level for adults should be below 200mg/100ml blood.

The human body gets cholesterol from two sources: Synthesis in the liver Food rich in cholesterol (meat, poultry and full-fat dairy products)

Two main forms of Cholesterol

  • LDL (low-density lipoprotein)

LDL cholesterol is often referred to as “bad cholesterol” because too much is unhealthy.

  • HDL (high-density lipoprotein)

HDL is often referred to as “good cholesterol” because it is protective.

Functions of fats

1) energy- fats are a concentrated soured of energy in our diet. 1g of fat- 9 kcal. All tissues except those of the cns and brain can utilise fat as a source of energy. 2) protein sparing action– adequate amount of fat in diet allows protein to perform its main functions. 3) thermal insulation– subcutaneous fat acts as an insulator and help in retaining body heat. 4) protection to vital organs– fat provides a protective padding to vital organs from mechanical shock. 5) absorption of fat soluble vitamins– vitamins a, d, e, k. 6) to meet body requirements of efa’s. 7) satiety value– fats slow down the secretion of gastric juice and speed of digestion. 8) synthesis of hormones– the lipid cholesterol is necessary for synthesis of some hormones. Eg. Sex hormones. 9) fats are important constituent of cell membranes.

 

Q.5. Explain briefly the following: (a) Ways to improve quality of protein

  • Animal protein contains all essential amino acids in correct proportions and amounts and is good quality proteins. Four essential amino acids are in short supply in plant proteins. They are lysine, methionine, threonine, and tryptophan. Proteins in plant foods are generally deficient in one or two essential amino acids. Cereals are poor in lysine and pulses are poor in methionine.

  • Protein will be synthesized only when all amino acids, which form the protein, are present simultaneously. Vegetable proteins are partially complete proteins. These two points should be kept in mind while improving the protein quality of a meal.

The protein quality of a mainly vegetarian diet can be improved in the following ways.

  • By including a small quantity of complete protein food in every meal. Complete protein foods such as milk, curds, paneer, cheese, buttermilk, and eggs could be used in small quantities in various preparations instead of including it in one meal only, e.g. cereal and milk, egg or cheese sandwiches, french toast, raitha, curd rice, or buttermilk at all meals in place of bowl of curd in one meal.

  • Correct mixtures of plant foods could provide all essential amino acids in suitable proportions and amounts. Cereal and pulse combinations will complement each other as cereals provide methionine, which is lacking in pulses, and pulses provide lysine, which is lacking in cereals, when cereal and pulses are consumed together in the same meal, e.g. missie roti, Thalipeeth, Puran Poli, idli, and Rajma Chawal. This is possible because the same amino acids are not missing from all plant foods.

  • Synthetic amino acids may be added to processed foods to compensate for the amino acid deficient in them, e.g., lysine enriched bread. Textured vegetable proteins are used successfully to improve protein quality and reduce the cost of protein-rich foods.

  • When plant proteins are consumed with a small quantity of animal protein, the quality of the mixture is likely to be as effective as if the only animal protein has been consumed. A good rule while planning menus would be to include some animal proteins at each meal instead of concentrating it all in one meal.

(b) Factors influencing menu planning

Many factors influence the acceptability of a meal. Customers select what appeals most to them from a menu card based on individual likes and dislikes, budget, the popularity of items, etc.

However, while planning meals the following factors need to be considered:

Nutritional Adequacy

The most important consideration in menu planning is to ensure that the meal fulfills the nutrient needs of the individual consuming the meal. For example, if the meal is planned for industrial workers, it must meet the RDAs for that age group. Foods from all basic food groups should be included in each meal so that the meal is balanced and nutritionally adequate. Nutrient needs may be modified for hospital diets (therapeutic diets).

Economic Considerations

The spending power of the clientele has to be kept in mind and meals have to be planned within the budget. Low-cost nutritious substitutes should be included in the menu to keep the costs low. The food cost should be maintained if the organization has to run profitably.

Food Service

Menus should be planned concerning the type of food service, whether it is a cafeteria, seated service, buffet, etc.

Equipment and Work Space

The menu should be planned, keeping the available equipment and workspace in mind. Deep freezers, refrigerators, grinders, dough kneaders, deep fat fryers, boilers, etc. should be adequate.

Leftover Food

An effective manager should consider as to how leftovers could be rotated to obtain maximum profit. Adequate storage space and hygienic standards should be ensured to minimize the risk of contamination and spoilage of food.

Food Habits

Food habits of the customer is another important criteria which need to be considered as food served has to be acceptable to the customer. Special attention should be paid when a particular type of community is catered to. Religious considerations should be known to the meal planner.

Availability

Some fruits and vegetables are seasonal. During the season the cost is reasonable and quality is better. Today, practically all fruits and vegetables are available throughout the year because of advanced preservation technology. However, seasonal fruits and vegetables should be given preference. Regional availability influences menu planning. For example, fish and seafood are fresh and cheaper in coastal areas.

Meal Frequency and Pattern

The meal timings and number of meals consumed in a day, whether meals are packed or served at the table, also influences the selection of food items on the menu. The age, activity level, physiological state, work schedule, and economic factors need to be known before planning meals for institutional catering.

Variety

This is one of the most important considerations while planning meals. A variety of foods from different food groups should be included. The term variety means:

  • Variety in food ingredients

  • Variety in recipe

  • Method of cooking

  • Colour, texture, and flavour

  • Variety in presentation and garnish.

 

Q.6. What is balance diet? Classify food into various groups.

When the diet can meet all the needs of an individual and also it provides an extra allowance for minor stresses and strains, the individual is said to be in a state of optimum nutrition.

Optimum Nutrition: Optimum Nutrition is also known as adequate nutrition or good nutrition.

Good Nutrition: Good Nutrition thus provides all essential nutrients in correct balance which are further utilized to promote the highest level of physical and mental health. Such a state of nutrition can be attained through balanced diets.

Balanced Diet: Balanced Diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods (from all food group) in such quantities and proportions that needs for all the nutrients are adequately met and a small extra allowance is made as a margin of safety.

Safety Margin: Safety Margin is taken into account due to individual variations, losses during cooking and processing and also minor illnesses. Thus a balanced diet along with the inclusion of various food groups focuses on the RDA for various nutrients.

RDA: RDA is defined as the estimates of intakes nutrients which individuals in a population group need to consume to ensure that the physiological needs of all subjects in that population are met. RDA varies with age, sex, physiological state, etc.

Three Food Group System:

  1. energy giving food,

  2. bodybuilding food,

  3. protective foods

Five Food Group System:

  1. cereals and grain products,

  2. pulses or legumes,

  3. milk, egg, and flesh

  4. fruits and vegetables

  5. fats and sugars

 

Q.7. What are the common mistakes done while processing and cooking bulk food?

Too much Salt

This is a very common cooking mistake. Your read the recipe wrong or got distracted and before your know it, your delicious casserole or stew is ruined by the overpowering taste of salt. To counter the taste, peel a few medium sized potatoes and add them whole to your pot, let them boil in the stew until you are happy with the taste and the saltiness has dissipated. Simply remove the potatoes from the dish and discard them, they absorb the salt and will not be palatable.

Over Cooked Pasta

We have all had this happen to us at some stage and end up with a soggy mess. The only way to remedy this is to drain the pasta and rinse it. Let it stand while you heat up a pan with some olive oil in it. Make sure the oil is hot and fry the pasta. Watch it very closely as it only take a few seconds to firm up.

Mushy Vegetables

When cooking vegetables, keep a close eye on their color. It should remain bright and not dull. If you realize you have overcooked them and they are way too soft, simply drain and soak them in an ice bath, the cold water will stop the cooking process. Next, place them in an ovenproof dish and sprinkle cheese over them. Broil in the oven until the cheese goes crispy and your vegetables are saved.

Sticky Rice While there are certain kinds of rice meant to be sticky, more often than not, we are just cooking ordinary long grain white rice to eat with dinner. When you suddenly see that the rice is a sticky mess, you need an easy method to fix it. What you can do is rinse the rice under cold water until it separates and all the starchiness has gone. Now re-heat quickly and serve.

Too Much Spice

The addition of too much hot spice to any dish can spell disaster for those who are unable to tolerate a very hot and spicy meal. If this has happened to your dish, add sweetness in the form of brown sugar, dried fruit or even jam. Do this in small increments until you are happy with the taste. For creamier dishes, simply add a sour flavor in the form of plain yogurt, cream cheese or sour cream.

Greasy Gravy

In making a gravy, you usually remove the cooked meat and drain the juices into a small pot, let the juices cool right down. Once done, one of these two things will happen: you will either have an oily layer floating on top of the liquid, which you can drain off with a spoon, or you will see solid lumps of fat floating on top, which you only have to scoop out. Now you have the perfect base for your gravy.

Lumpy Béchamel Sauce (white roux)

When making your Béchamel or white sauce for the lasagna, make sure that you melt the butter completely before adding the starch. Ensure this is done on a very low heat. Remove the pot from the heat source and stir the mixture to form a dense yellow paste. Return to the heat and add your milk. Now stir constantly with a whisk but never with a wooden spoon. The whisk ensure a smooth lump-free roux. Use this method for making custard as well always stir with a whisk.

Charred But Raw

Regardless of your taste in meat, a charred on the outside steak that is completely raw on the inside is simply not edible. If this has happened to your steaks, leave them in the skillet and place in a medium oven on bake setting. Now bake until cooked enough on the inside. Watch the steaks carefully so that they do not dry out.

Scalded Soup

For soup that has caught on the bottom and has a burnt taste, simply add two grated large potatoes into it and cook until soft. You will not be able to taste the burnt flavor.

Tough Beef.

So you have cooked your beef casserole for hours and the cubes of beef are chewy. To remedy this, add a teaspoon of baking soda and let the casserole simmer until the beef is tenderized. Baking soda breaks down the fibers of the meat.

 

Q.8. Critically evaluate fast foods.

Many fast foods are rich in calories as they include considerable amounts of mayonnaise, cheese, salt, fried meat, and oil, thus containing high fat content . Excessive consumption of fatty ingredients such as these results in unbalanced diet. Proteins and vitamins are generally recommended for daily consumption rather than large quantities of carbohydrates or fat. Due to their fat content, fast foods are implicated in poor health and various serious health issues such as obesity and cardiovascular diseases. Additionally, there is strong empirical evidence showing that fast foods are also detrimental to appetite, respiratory system function, and central nervous system function . In a cross-sectional data study from more than 100-thousand adolescents in 32 countries, which included low-income, middle-income, to high-income countries, it has been found that fast food is associated with increased attempt to suicide.

The fast-food industry is growing rapidly all over the world to provide a quick meal to the customer at an unaffordable cost and in very little time. In India, the fast-food industry comprises mainly of south Indian, Punjabi snacks and popular MNCs like KFC, MC’D, Pizza hut, etc. Many products have been modified to suit the Indian palate and respect religious sentiments. Many of these providers take away or drive-thru services as well as a sitting area to eat food on the premises. Modern commercial fast food is often highly processed & prepared & industrial fashion. Most items on the menu are prepared at the central supply facility & then shipped to individual outlets where they are reheated/cooked or assembled in a short time. The central kitchen ensures consistency in product quality & ability to deliver the order quickly to the customer eliminating labor & equipment cost in the individual restaurant.

 

Q.9. Define the following: (a) SDA

SDA is the effect food has in increasing the metabolic rate above the level found when fasting. Energy is needed to digest, absorb and metabolize the food we eat. Food intake stimulates the metabolism process leading to an increase in energy expenditure. This is known as the thermogenic effect of food or SDA. Proteins have maximum effect on SDA increasing the BMR by 30%while carbohydrates and fast show smaller increase.

(b) Health

Health signifies the ability to deal with physical, biological, psychological, and social stress.

The World Health Organization (WHO) proposed a definition that aimed higher: linking health to well-being, in terms of “physical, mental, and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease and infirmity”.

Being healthy is way more than just being physically fit or absence of diseases. We can recognize diseases only when we feel or see any symptoms. Many of the times we are good to do works and we think that we are fit or healthy but actually, we are not. Nowadays mental, physical and social illness is on top.

With nutrients, our surroundings & environment, physical activities, and self-satisfaction are also contributing to being healthy.

(c) Malnutrition

Malnutrition, in every form, presents significant threats to human health. Malnutrition includes both undernutrition and overweight.

Malnutrition is a condition that results from eating a diet in which one or more nutrients are either not enough or are too much such that the diet causes health problems.

Undernutrition: Not enough nutrients or lack of nutrients in one’s body are called undernutrition or undernourishment.

Overnutrition: While too much nutrients consumption caused overnutrition or the person considered as overweight.

(d) Obesity

Obesity is a complex disease involving an excessive amount of body fat. Obesity isn’t just a cosmetic concern. It is a medical problem that increases your risk of other diseases and health problems, such as heart disease, diabetes, high blood pressure and certain cancers.

(e) Monosaccharides

The monosaccharides are the simplest of the carbohydrates since they contain only one polyhydroxy aldehyde or ketone unit and cannot be further hydrolyzed into simpler units. (Mono: one, Saccharide: sugar).

There are two major classes of monosaccharides: 1. Aldoses: Sugars containing an aldehydic group are known as aldoses, e.g., Glucose, galactose, mannose, and glycerose. 2. Ketoses: Sugars containing a ketonic group are known as ketoses. e.g., Dihydroxyacetone, fructose, and ribulose.

 

Q.10. A State whether True or False:

(i) Pectin is soluble in water. True (ii) Fibres help in increasing blood cholesterol. False (iii) The basic units from which proteins are built are the amino acids. True (iv) Night blindness is caused by deficiency of Vitamin . True (v) Distress eating results in obesity. True

B Fill in the blanks:

(i) Energy is measured in Kcal (Kcal/Joules). (ii) Fructose is found in honey (Lactose/Fructose/Maltose). (iii) Vitamin D is gained from Sun (Air/Water/Sun). (iv) Each gram of carbohydrates provides 4 kcal. (v) The only sugar required by brain is Glucose (Glucose/Sucrose/Maltose).

 

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