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Accommodation Operations | Solved Paper | 2016-17 | 1st Sem B.Sc HHA

Topic Wise Notes: Accommodation Operations

Please note: The answers provided below, are just for reference. Always consult your college professor if you have any queries.


Q.1. Draw an organisation chart of housekeeping department of a large 5 star hotel with 600 guestrooms having a laundry on the premises. Explain the duties of floor supervisor and desk supervisor.

Duties of floor supervisor

  • Supervise the handing over of soiled linen to the laundry and the requisitioning of fresh ones from housekeeping.

  • Ensure the supply of equipment and maintenance and cleaning supplies to floors and public areas.

  • Issue floor keys to room attendants.

  • Supervise spring cleaning.

  • Report on maintenance work on her floor.

  • Coordinate with room service for clearing.

  • Maintain par stock for the respective floors/ floor pantry.

  • Coordinate with the front office manager.

  • Facilitate the provision of extra services to guests, such as baby sitters, hot-water bottles, and so on, on request.

  • Immediately report any safety or security hazard to the security department or to the management.

  • Check on scanty baggage.

  • Prepare housekeeping status reports.

  • Supervise cleaning on the allotted floors and areas- including guestrooms, corridors, staircases, and floor pantries of the allotted floors.

  • Report on standards of individual staff performance.

Duties of desk supervisor

  • Coordinate with the front office for information on departure rooms and handing over of clean rooms.

  • Coordinate with other departments for smooth functioning and efficiency.

  • Receive complaints on maintenance and housekeeping.

  • Maintains registers kept at the control desk.

  • Receive special requests from guests.

  • Act as a pivotal person in receiving and disseminating information amongst housekeeping staff.

  • Maintain the latest reports regarding room occupancy, VIPs, the status of rooms, and so on, so that work can be delegated to attendants and supervisors accordingly.

  • Attend to all phone calls received at the control desk.

  • Be responsible for guestroom keys given to room attendants and to store the keys and maintain a key register.


Q.2. What role does the housekeeping play in making a guest’s stay in a hotel a memorable?

Importance of Housekeeping

  • Hotel’s largest margin of profit comes from the sale of rooms because a room once made can be sold over and over again. Housekeeping helps in the sale of rooms (FO can sell the room only when the HK cleans & makes them ready for sale). A good hotel operation ensures optimal sales to get maximum profit.

  • Room sale is also dependent on the quality of decor, room facilities, cleanliness, and safety of room which is ensured by the housekeeping department.

  • It creates a “home away from home” experience

  • Housekeeping department takes a well-organized approach and technical understanding to be able to cope with the large volume of work

  • Maintains guest satisfaction by providing a clean, comfortable & safe environment

  • Contributes towards the reputation of the hotel

  • Helps in getting repeat business. Unless the room décor is appropriate, the air odour free plus cleanliness all over, the hotel may lose the guest as a potential repeat customer.

  • Satisfied guests also spread the word of mouth about the property which helps in getting more business.

  • Makes sure that the other departments work also goes on smoothly

  • The tasks performed by a housekeeping department are critical to the smooth operation of any hotel and it is a 24 X 7 X 365 operation.

OR Discuss the various functions of housekeeping department in a hotel.

Housekeeping department in hotel ensures the cleanliness, maintenance, and aesthetic appeal of all rooms and public areas. The housekeeping department not only turnarounds (prepares and clean guestrooms) on a timely manner it also cleans and maintains everything in the hotel so that the property is as fresh and attractive similar to the day when it opened the doors for the business.

The effort that the housekeeping makes in giving a guest a desirable room has a direct bearing on the guest’s experience in a hotel. Thre are more employees working in the housekeeping department when compared to any other hotel departments.

Being responsible for the turnaround of the rooms in a timely manner, housekeepings primary communications are with the front desk/reception team. Each room status is updated on a regular basis from the housekeeping to the front desk and vice versa. With new technologies available a room status update can be done via the hotel software, telephone systems, housekeeping mobile applications etc.

Housekeeping also coordinates closely with the maintenance or engineering department, as the housekeeping staff identifies different types of maintenance issues while cleaning the rooms and reports to the maintenance team for rectification or replacement. Example snags or issue with the TV, AC, Heating unit, Plumbing, Lighting, Electrical faults, Furniture, Toilet, Vanity, Tub, Towels racks, Ventilation issues etc.

The role of housekeeping can change depending upon the type or category of the hotel, for example only in a luxury or full-service hotel evening or turndown services are offered by the housekeeping department. The housekeeping department is one of the major ‘Support Centre’ in the hotel as it doesn’t generate any major revenue for the hotel.

Housekeeping is considered as a ‘back of the house’ department even though they have some direct contact to the guests; like for example while cleaning rooms, picking up laundry, providing evening or turndown services etc.


Q.3. Write a note on frequency schedules for cleaning. Explain how cleaning is organised in hotels.

Methods Of Organizing Cleaning

  • Orthodox/ Traditional cleaning: In this method, the Guest Room attendant completes all the cleaning tasks in one room before proceeding to another room. On average, a GRA may be required to clean about 12-20 room in 8 hours duty.

  • Block cleaning: In this method, GRA moves from one dirty room to another and completes the same task in every room before returning for starting the next task on the list. This involves blocking several rooms at a time and usually, more than 1 GRA are involved in cleaning at a time. Different GRA’s pick up different tasks. (Bed making, Toilet Cleaning, Room cleaning, replenishing supplies).

  • Team cleaning: This is a combination of the two methods mentioned above. In this method two or more GRA’s work in the same room taking up different tasks so that room is cleaned quickly before moving on to the same room. A team of 3 GRA’s may be assigned 30-35 rooms in a day.

  • Deep cleaning: It refers to the intensive cleaning schedule in which periodic cleaning tasks are scheduled for monthly, quarterly, half-yearly or annual frequency. This is done for areas and surfaces which cannot be cleaned on a daily basis. This kind of cleaning is conducted in close coordination with the maintenance department. Example, carpet shampooing, Rotating and cleaning mattresses, Ceilings, light fittings, fans, signage boards, laundering of soft furnishings.

  • Spring cleaning: This is a term used for annual cleaning of guestrooms and public areas in off-season periods and low occupancy periods. This involves a complete overhaul of the rooms by undertaking a few steps as :

    • Removal of carpets from the room for shampooing

    • Polishing wooden furniture, shampooing upholstery (sofas)

    • Painting on walls

    • Cleaning air conditioning vents

    • Airing the room

    • Redecoration

Frequency of Cleaning

Cleaning tasks may be divided according to the frequency of their scheduling, which depends upon the level of soiling, the type of surface, the amount of traffic, the type of hotel and the cleaning standards. Employees should be given the procedures and frequencies for carrying out various tasks outlined in the book or manual. This information may also be displayed in the floor pantries

Daily Cleaning

These are routing operations carried out on a day-to-day basis by the staff of the housekeeping department. These include the regular servicing of guestrooms, cleaning of bathrooms and toilets, suction cleaning of floors and the floor coverings, and so on.

Periodic Cleaning

1.Weekly Cleaning

These, as the term implies, are routine tasks carried out on a weekly basis. Weekly cleaning schedules are made and these normally include some cleaning tasks that are time consuming or tasks that cannot be done on a daily basis. Example :

  • Monday- Polishing Brassware

  • Tuesday- High dusting

  • Wednesday- Scrubbing of Bathroom Tiles

  • Thursday- Vacuuming under heavy furniture

  • Friday- Scrubbing of balconies/terrace

  • Saturday- Changing paper underliner in drawers

  • Sunday- Cleaning the window Ledges

2.Fortnightly Cleaning

A fifteen-day cleaning schedule.

3.Deep Cleaning

It refers to the intensive cleaning schedule in which periodic cleaning tasks are scheduled for monthly, quarterly, half-yearly, or annual frequency. This is done for areas and surfaces which cannot be cleaned on a daily basis. This kind of cleaning is conducted in close coordination with the maintenance department. Example, carpet shampooing, Rotating and cleaning mattresses, Ceilings, light fittings, fans, signage boards, laundering of soft furnishings.

4.Spring Cleaning

This is a term used for annual cleaning of guestrooms and public areas in off-season periods and low occupancy periods. This involves a complete overhaul of the rooms by undertaking few steps as: Removal of carpets from the room for shampooing, Polishing wooden furniture, shampooing upholstery (sofas), Painting on walls, Redecoration, Cleaning air conditioning vents and Airing the room.

Special Cleaning

These cleaning may be occasional; for example cleaning a room which is handed over from the project team to housekeeping, cleaning a room after the preventive maintenance of a room has been done, cleaning a room after it has undergone a major renovation, etc.

Apart from the above cleaning there can be:

Evening service (Or Turn- Down Service): this is the service given to a room in the evening to prepare the room for the night. This service should be done prior to the guest retiring for the night. Second Service: this is a service given to the VIP guest staying in the hotel or on the guest’s request. This normally happens when a guest has/ had a party or meeting in his room & would like his room to be put in order as a consequence. This may be charged by the hotel.

OR List the principles of cleaning stating the repercussions of violating these principles.

Regardless of the type of hotel or size of the hotel, the housekeeping department should follow certain basic principles in cleaning or basic cleaning rules to follow in any kind of cleaning activity, whatever the nature of the surface, material, or the soil.The room attendants or room maids must follow these cleaning principles or cleaning rules in order to consistently produce spotless cleaning of the guest rooms and public area without damaging the surface or the area in which they are cleaning.

Below is the list of Housekeeping Basic Principles of Cleaning:

  1. All soils should be removed without harming the surface being cleaned or the surrounding surfaces.

  2. The surface should be restored to its original state after the cleaning processes.

  3. The cleaning process should be efficient, using a minimum of equipment, cleaning agents, labor & time.

  4. The simplest cleaning method should be tried first, along with using the mildest cleaning agent.

  5. Always use the cleaning methods least harmful to the surface should be used.

  6. The cleaning should proceed from high area to low wherever possible.

  7. Always start with the cleaner surfaces & then go on to clean the more heavily soiled ones, so as to prevent the spread of soil from dirty to cleaner surfaces.

  8. While wet cleaning an area or polishing the floor, the cleaner should walk backward while cleaning in front of him.

  9. Use of the suction/vacuum cleaning should be preferred over sweeping wherever possible.

  10. Sweeping should be done before dusting, and dusting before suction cleaning.

  11. The noise levels while cleaning should be kept as low as possible.

  12. Try to remove stains as soon as they occur using the correct methods.

  13. The cleaner should take all safety precautions while cleaning.

  14. The cleaning agents & equipment should be stacked neatly to one side after each use.

  15. The cleaner should start cleaning from the farthest end of an area, working towards the exit.

  16. After the cleaning process is over, all equipment should be washed or wiped as applicable, dried, & stored properly.

  17. Cleaning agents should be replenished & stored properly.

  18. All waste needs to be discarded & the working area should be always left neat & tidy.


Q.4. What are the points to be considered by Executive Housekeeper while selecting equipment for the property? Give five examples of manual and mechanical equipment and describe them briefly.

Consider the following factors:

Productivity: how much square feet of carpet area can be cleaned in one hour ?

Work performance: in terms of capacity and machine and consumer reports on performance.

Ease of handling: in terms of size, weight and height of the machine and ease of manoeuvring and operating.

Appearance: What impression might guests have if they see the equipment in use.

Accessories: What kind of accessories are required or available?

Refill Procedure: How easy or difficult to refill required chemicals or cleaning agents ?

Regular Maintenance and care: What kind of regular care and maintenance is required for the upkeep of the equipment.

Safety in operation and maintenance.

Suitability: to the type of area, surface, work, amount of obstruction and cleaning frequency.

Versatility: to undertake various types of cleaning.

Portability: in terms of ease of transfer between floors and the provision of wheels and detachable parts and consumer reports on life expectancy.

Noise level: which is a more important consideration for hospitals than hotels.

Availability of spare parts: easy servicing conditions and lead time after booking of equipment.

Protective design: which may feature a protective edging to prevent damage to wall furniture and fittings and no sharp edges.

Ease of storage: in terms of ease of dismantling detachable parts and storage space required.

Cost: as a sum of initial costs, operating costs, maintenance and depreciation, as well as hiring considerations as opposed to purchasing.

Training: What Training programs are given to the hotel staff on using the product.

After Sales Service: What product and service warranties are included ? and is service provided onsite?

Manual Equipments


  • Brushes should be gently tapped on a hard surface to loosen dust and debris after the cleaning process.

  • Frequent washing with water is avoidable since the brushes may lose some of their stiffness in this way. If they must be washed frequently, the final rinse should be in cold saline water to help the brushes retain their stiffness.

  • Brushes should be cleaned of all fluff and threads before washing. They may be washed in warm, mild soapy water. A disinfectant should be added to the rinsing water for toilet brushes

  • If brushes with natural bristles (vegetable or animal origin) have been used for wax polishing. Washing soda (1 tbsp to 2 litres of water) should be added to remove grease thoroughly.

  • Brushes should be washed by beating the head up and down, with the bristles facing downwards, so that water splashes up between the tufts. They should be rinsed be in the same way in cold water. After shaking off excess water, the brushes should be left to dry in such a way that the remaining water may drip off the side of the brush or the top of the headstock.

  • Brushes should never be left resting on their bristles, else they will splay out; if left resting on ‘ their stock, water will rot the stock in time. The best way would be to hang the brushes bristle downward. When possible, brushes should be dried in the sun or open air.

  • To extend the life of a brush, lacquer should be applied to the stock and handle with an oil Can and allowed to harden.


  • Brooms should be shaken free of dust and fluff. They should never be stored standing on their bristle, or the bristles will bend out of shape. resulting in inefficient cleaning.

  • Brooms should be stored either lying horizontally or hanging bristles downward.

  • Soft brooms should never be used on wet surfaces.

  • Stiff brooms such as the coconut fibre brooms can be used on wet surfaces, but must afterwards be cleaned thoroughly in saline water and dried in the sun before storing.

Box Sweepers

  • The friction brush should be kept clean. else the efficiency of the equipment will be seriously impaired.

  • After the cleaning process, the dustpans should be emptied of all the collected dust.

Dry Mops

  • Mops should be shaken well after use outdoors.

  • The mop heads should be easily detachable so that they can be frequently washed in hot water with detergent.

  • The use of soap-free detergent will prevent the formation of scum that clogs the fibres of the head.

  • The mop must be worked up and down in at least two changes of clean, hot water.

  • The clean mop should then be tightly squeezed out, shaken well to get rid of excess moisture. and left to dry in the open air.

  • Once dry, the mops may need to be re-impregnated.

Wet Mops

  • Mops should be taken outdoors after use and shaken well to remove excess moisture. Then these mops may be washed in the same way as dry mops.

  • Detachable heads are easier to clean and maintain. However. drying is the most important part of mop care as bacteria require moisture to multiply.

  • A disinfectant to discourage their growth is effective only for a short period of time, so leaving them damp means letting germs breed.

  • Damp mops should be renewed as soon as there are signs of wear.

  • They should be stored in such a way that air is allowed to circulate around the mop head all.

  • Disinfectant or bleach should never be used with a cellulose sponge head. Sponge heads should be washed and rinsed after use, squeezed out excess water, and dried well.

  • The Sponge head should be stored by hanging.

Polish Applicators

  • Polish applicators should not be washed with water.

  • Wiping away excess polish with newspaper or rags before it dries should suffice.

  • It is important to label the applicators with the type of polish for which they are to be used so that each applicator is used with just one kind of polish to avoid mixing different products.

Mechanical Equipments

Floor Maintenance Machine

This is a multi functional machine which can scrub, polish and buff the floors. The machines have driving discs (single disc or three small discs rotates on opposite directions) colored nylon pads, water tank, shampoo tank, sprayer which are used for different functions. Lighter the color of the pads lesser strong it is. For scrubbing and stripping: Scrubbing is done with scrubbing brush or with scrubbing pad(black) attached to the disc which cut the soil. For polishing: Red colored pads to apply polish on the floor For buffing: beige or white pads are used to create high gloss finish.

Wet Extraction Machines

Wet extraction machine are used to restore the surface appearance of carpet, upholstery and curtains. They remove deeply embedded soil not removed by suction cleaning. Types of wet Extraction systems:- a)Hot water extraction machine-They carry a hot water tank and detergent used for deep cleaning carpet with high pressure spray nozzles and a suction unit to remove soiled solution from the surface. b)Solvent extraction machines- Used for cleaning upholstery and curtains.

Shampooing Machines

Brushes are made of nylon as it needs to be strong to get through the carpet pile. They are fixed to the discs of the floor maintenance machine. There are special pressure tank along with a foam generator which produces the foam in dry form which cleans the carpet and suspends the soil. This way carpet does not get too wet.

Power Sweeper

These are self or manually operated machines designed to remove debris and loose soil from floor, pavement, car park, and large areas.

Scarifying Machine

Scarifying is a process of removing heavy grease, mud, thick deposits of dirt from floor by chisel like action with a wire brush cutting tool.


Draw and identify various sections of hotel housekeeping department and briefly explain the role of each section.

Executive Housekeeper’s office: An Executive housekeeper has to plan, counsel, brief and meets her subordinates. It should preferably be a glass-panelled office so as to give her/him a view of what is happening outside the office. The office should be led by a cabin for the secretary who would control movement into the housekeeper’s office.

Desk control room: This room acts as a nerve system centre for coordination and communication with the fo and other departments. The desk control room should have a large notice board to pin up staff schedules and day to day instructions. The desk control room is the point where all staff report for duty and CO at the duty end.

Linen room: This is the room where current linens are stored for issue and receipt. The room should be large airy and free from heat and humidity. It should have adequate shelves, easily accessible to stack all linen. It should be secured and offer no possibilities of pilferage. The linen room should have a counter, across which the exchange of linen takes place. The room should preferably be adjoining the laundry so as to supply linen to and from the laundry.

Linen room store: This room stores the stock of new linen & cloth materials for uniform, etc. the stock maintained should be enough to replenish the whole hotel at a time. However, these stocks are only touched when the current linen in circulation falls short due to shortage, damage or loss. The room should be cool and dry with ample shelves, generally 6″ above the ground.

Uniform room: This room stocks the uniform in urgent use. It is possible that smaller hotel may choose to combine the uniform room with the linen room. A separate uniform room really depends upon the volume of uniforms in circulation. The only difference will be that the uniform room would have adequate hanging facilities as many uniforms are best maintained when hung.

Tailor’s room: This room is kept for house tailors who attend to the stitching and patch-up work of linen and uniforms. Room is avoided if the mending and the stitching jobs are done in contract basis.

Lost and Found section: This section should be small and airy with cupboards to store guest articles lost and maybe claimed later.

Flower room: This should be an air-conditioned room to keep flowers fresh. The room should have a work table, a sink with a water supply and all necessary tools required for flower arrangement.

Laundry: This is an important section under housekeeping which is responsible for the cleaning of all fabrics used in the hotel. The section should be adjacent to the linen room so as to avoid excessive steps. Laundry should ensure the cleanness and drying of all guest clothes, employee uniforms and linen to the best-assured standard.


Q.5. Discuss the aspects of co-operation between front office and housekeeping for smooth and efficient function of room division in a hotel.

  • To ensure efficient rooming of guests, both housekeeping and front office must inform each other of changes in a room’s status. Knowing whether a room is occupied, vacant, on change, out of order (OOO), under repair, or similar for proper room management

  • There should be coordination to clean front office public areas

  • There must be coordination between housekeeping and front office department to share information on occupancy levels which helps to forecast occupancy for the year and makes it easier to draw up a budget, establish par stock levels and estimate required staff strength.

  • There should be coordination know about the daily room report and housekeeping discrepancy report.

  • It also helps to gear renovations and spring cleaning to low occupancy periods thereby preventing loss of revenue.

  • The housekeeping and front office department also coordinate with each other for other important information which requires special attention like

  • VIPs in the house: this information is essential so that the staff can take a little extra care and keener precautions in cleaning and supervising VIP rooms.

  • Groups in the house: the group rooming list must be provided before the group’s arrival to the housekeeping as groups tend to move together in terms of arrival, departure, sightseeing tours, and meals. Their rooms need to be readied together in view of strict time parameters. Group rooming lists enable the HK department to organize their work and have the group’s room ready on time.

  • Crews in the house: Sometimes the arrival of a crew and the departure of another crew from the same airline may overlap. In such circumstances, it is important for the allotted rooms to be cleaned within a short period of time. Thus for this, there should be effective coordination between front office and housekeeping.

  • Flowers: sometimes the management extends its compliments to a guest with a special gesture of a flower arrangement in the room as recognition of the importance of a person. This requirement of flower arrangements for certain guests is conveyed to housekeeping by the front office on a daily basis.

  • Apart from the above communications the front office needs to depend on housekeeping for the provision of clean uniforms to its staff.

OR In what way can information technology systems be utilised in housekeeping operation?

Use of Computers in housekeeping

Many hotels have invested heavily in information technology infrastructure and networking that deploy the latest technical advances in their operations. The new technologies which are gaining entry into the hospitality segment are Wi-Fi (wireless fidelity), radio frequency identification, and the possibility of tracking inventory and guest data through the convergence of cellular and wireless technologies, GPS (Global Positioning System), VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol), handheld communication devices and so on. Hotels either provide Wi-Fi as a value-added amenity to the guest or offer the service at a cost to their guest. Wi-Fi is provided in guest rooms as well as public areas, lobbies, meeting rooms, lounges, and so on.

In The House-Keeping Department

  • WLAN (Wireless Local Area Network) technology is enabling a wide range of hospitality applications in the housekeeping department. Housekeeping staff can now conduct room checks after a guest vacates the room through the handheld Wi-Fi enabled device to report the status of the room.

  • They also communicate with security personnel instantly over e-mail in case of an emergency.

  • Staff can also ensure from a remote spot that fire extinguishers are charged, emergency lights are functioning, and so on.

  • Check and communicate inventory invention for guest room supplies and the stocking of minibars in order to ensure that provisions are replenished in an efficient manner.

  • Computers are now being used in many housekeeping departments for room management, inventory control, and linen management.

  • Computers can now be linked to the telephone system in each individual guest room. This technology greatly reduces the cost of individual wiring in each guest room. For e.g. an interface can be created between the telephone systems of the hotels’ computer network by the guest room attendant dialing a specific sequence of numbers on the phone from the specific guestroom. Once connected the computer immediately recognizes room no. to which it is being connected.

  • Housekeeping operations modules are widely available such as forecasting attendant requirements, daily housekeeping scheduling, tracking housekeeping history, and monitoring room attendant’s performance.

  • There is also a module to track the status from dirty room to ready room for inspection and a cleaned room that is ready for the guest.

  • Many hotels also offer a detection technology when the guest puts the tray outside the door, housekeeping is alerted from a triangle sensor on the tray that triggers another sensor in the doorway. This immediately alerts the staff to the waiting tray with a blinking light.

  • The housekeeping staff can also be alerted when the room is available for cleaning by the guest. In this application, the guest clicks a button, which sets off another sensor to indicate they are gone and the room can be cleaned.

  • Occupancy report, discrepancy report, list, or under repair rooms can be sent to the front office through the WLANs system by which manual work can be avoided.

  • The housekeeping module can also schedule the servicing of guest request, for e.g. if a guest calls the front desk and request for a crib or extra towels, the front desk can simply input this request into the computer and it then appears on the main housekeeping monitor screen. A guest request notification can also be sent to the room attendants automatically to the handheld wireless PDA (Personal Digital Assistant) or cell phone by way of text message or e-mail.

  • WLANs allow guest to share hi-speed internet connections, browse the web, access their corporate networks, remotely yet securely, access the business center from their rooms, organize video conference, play games online, and use multiplayer gaming options.


Q.6. Differentiate between the following (any five):

(a) Buffing and burnishing

Buffing Floor buffing uses a buffer to polish floors. While the floor should be cleaned before buffing, the squeegees in the back of a buffer help gather any dirt and moisture that are left behind. Buffing can be done at low or high speeds. A standard buffer machine runs at 175 revolutions per minute. High-speed buffers can run from 1,250 to as high as 1,500 revolutions per minute. While buffing does restore some gloss and smoothness to floors, it does not achieve the same wet-look shine that burnishing does.

Burnishing While floor buffing may refer to both the polishing and residual cleaning of floors, burnishing refers only to polishing the floors at a higher speed to produce maximum shine. The extra polish is due to the burnisher’s much higher speed, which can run from 1,500 to 2,500 revolutions per minute. Burnishing is often done after buffing in order to achieve that wet-look shine.

(b) Granolithic floor and terrazzo floor

Granolithic floor

Granolithic flooring differs from ordinary concrete flooring in that it uses an aggregate, or mix of materials, instead of a single uniform cement. This style of flooring mixes marble chips directly into the cement. The marble chips give the finished floor a distinctive “mosaic” look. Grinding the finished floor brings out this effect to varying degrees — as the top layer of concrete gives way to a smooth surface of aggregate in either a dull or glossy finish.

Terrazzo Flooring

Terrazzo is a composite material, poured in place or precast, which is used for floor and wall treatments. It consists of chips of marble, quartz, granite, glass, or other suitable material, poured with a cementitious binder (for chemical binding), polymeric (for physical binding), or a combination of both.

(c) Houseman and ottoman


The house person’s job involves heavy physical work as assigned, such as carpet cleaning, window cleaning, carrying heavy pieces of furniture, washing public areas, garbage clearance, and also complementing the work of room attendants on guest floors.


a low upholstered seat without a back or arms that typically serves also as a box, with the seat hinged to form a lid.

(d) Deodorants and disinfectants

A deodorant is a substance that can be applied on the body to prevent it from odor, which is caused due to the bacterial breakdown of the perspiration in the armpits, and other parts of the body. They prevent sweating and controls odor. The FDA considers deodorant as cosmetics.

A disinfectant is an antimicrobial agent that is applied on the surface of non-living objects. They did not kill all microorganisms especially such as bacterial spores.

(e) Drugget and dustsheet

Dust sheets:

Dust sheets are made of any thin cotton material, being about the size of a single sheet. Discarded bed sheets or curtains from the linen room are ideal for use as dust sheets. They are used to cover floors, furniture or other articles during spring cleaning or decorating.


These are made of coarse, fine canvas or clear plastic and they may be of the size of carpet square and are placed on the floor on the doorway to prevent excessive dirt being brought in or out during bad weather or during redecorating projects. They are sometimes placed in the passage between the kitchen and dining area to catch spills and debris.

(f) Janitor’s trolley and mop wringer trolley

Janitor’s trolley

A trolley helps the cleaning job in two ways. One, it allows you to carry all the materials and tools necessary for the daily and routine cleaning all the time; and two, it facilitates the janitor to do multiple tasks simultaneously, as the necessary tools and materials are available at one place.

Mop Wringer

A mop bucket cart (or mop trolley) is a wheeled bucket that allows its user to wring out a wet mop without getting the hands dirty. The cart has two buckets with the upper one usually clipped onto the lower. The upper bucket is used to place the wet mop for storage and press handle to wring out the mop.


Q.7. Write short notes on any two: (a) Maid’s service room

Generally, hotels employ one maid per 12-15 rooms. The room attendants’/maids’ work is of great importance because it contributes in a big way to the comfort of the guests and hence their impression of the hotel. Their day consists of servicing each room to the required standard of the hotel, and this includes making beds, coping with linen supplies, and general cleaning. Nowadays most hotels use the term “attendant’ rather than ‘maid’ since men have entered this arena earlier dominated by a woman. Reports to: – The Floor Supervisor. In small hotels, they may report to the assistant housekeeper directly. Duties and responsibilities:

  • Clean and tidy rooms as per the sanitary regulations assigned.

  • Change guestroom and bathroom linen.

  • Make guest room beds.

  • Replenish guest supplies.

  • Answer guests’ summons promptly.

  • Be responsible for getting guest laundry processed.

  • Undertake the evening and provide the turn-down service.

  • Check and secure rooms.

  • Hand over to the housekeeper any article found.

  • Replenish the maids’ cart with guest supplies, cleaning agents, and linen.

(b) Detergents

Detergents are those cleaning agents, which contain significant quantities of a group of chemicals known as ‘Surfactants’ (chemicals that have water and soil attracting properties). A number of other chemicals are frequently included to produce detergents suitable for a specific use.A good detergent should –

  • Reduce the surface tension of water so that the cleaning solution can penetrate the soil

  • Emulsify soil and lift it from the surface

  • Be soluble in cold water

  • Be effective in hard water and a wide range of temperatures.

  • Be hard on the surface that has to be cleaned. Clean quickly and with little agitation.

  • Suspend soil in a cleaning solution, and once the soil is removed, to hold it in suspension and not let it redeposit.

  • Rinse easily and leave no streaks or scum

  • Be economical to user

  • Be harmless to the skin and article.

  • Be bio-degradable

Chemical composition of detergent: –

  • Surfactants are chemicals, whose molecules when dissolved in water possess, water seeking end (hydrophilic) and a water-repelling end (hydrophobic). They may or may not carry the positive and negative electrical charge. The molecules disperse through water and reduce the surface tension of water by overcoming the forces of attraction between the water molecules, thus allowing the water and surfactant molecules to penetrate the soil and surface.

  • Builders are alkaline chemicals that influence the effectiveness of a cleaning agent in one or both of the following ways –

    • They sequester (combine with) calcium ions in hard water to form water-soluble salts, thus preventing the adverse effects of calcium.

    • They enhance the emulsifying by increasing the pH value of the solution and dispersing properties of the detergent

    • Builders, in general, can cause a damaging effect on many surfaces, e.g. chrome, aluminum, wool, silk, paint, wood, linoleum. It may constitute up to 30% of heavily built powdered detergents and helps in softening water too.

  • Foaming agents increase or stabilize the foam formed by a detergent. Foaming can be used to surfactant activity, the level of foam depending on the amount of surfactant active in a cleaning solution, e.g. ethanol amides. Alkalomomides derived from coconut oil are frequently used for this purpose. The foam will stick to all non-horizontal surfaces, increasing the contact between the surface and the cleaning chemical.

  • Chelating agents are relatively complex chemicals, which are included in many liquid detergents to sequester calcium ions. They are also frequently used as a descaler, being a more acceptable alternative to strong acids.

  • Suspending agents increase the amount of soil that can be held in suspension in the cleaning solution, e.g. sodium carboxymethyl cellulose.

  • Bleaches will break down with oxidation, those stains that have not been removed from the surface by surfactants or builders. Sodium perborate, oxidizing weak bleach is frequently included in detergents intended for washing textiles.

  • Bulking agents contribute to the volume of detergent powders, e.g. sodium sulfate.

  • Conditioning agents ensure that the granules in the detergent powder are crisp, firm, and dry.

  • Whiteners cause absolute ultra-violet light to transmit as visible white light.

  • Enzymes are complex proteins that break down organic substances, e.g. blood stains, food stains, etc. they are effective at 30 to 50 degrees C and are inactivated at temperatures above 60 degrees C.

  • Anticorrosive agents inhibit the formation of water films on the surface. Chemical reactions resulting in corrosion are generally dependant on the presence of water, e.g. sodium silicate.

  • Perfumes and dyes are included to increase consumer acceptability, but increase the risk of allergic reactions.

  • Germicides are also added sometimes to prevent the growth of bacteria and fungus.

(c) Wall finishes

Wall coverings maybe purely decorative, in which case, ability to bring colour, pattern, texture, light or shade to the room maybe of the greatest importance. On the other hand the covering maybe required to give an easily cleaned and hygienic surface. The choice is very wide and the style should suit the purpose, furnishing and the architectural aspects of the room. The type of finish selected will depend largely on: –

  1. Contribution to décor: – The colour, texture and pattern will influence the apparent warmth and dimension of the room and the level and type of illumination used. The type of room, it’s existing size and decoration must be considered.

  2. Ease of cleaning: – Smooth, hard, impervious surface, preferably light coloured can be cleaned easily; whereas textured surfaces tend to attract and hold dust.

  3. State of existing surface: – textured and patterned finishes can be used to mask poor surfaces.

  4. Resistance to abrasion and knocks: – Hard surfaces will be best for this purpose.

  5. Stain resistance: – A non-porous surface has more resistance than porous ones.

  6. Durability: – Surfaces subject to abuse, knocks, stains and abrasion require finishes that are resistant, can be cleaned easily, inexpensively restored or repaired whenever required.

  7. Life expectancy: – Where décor of the room is intended to change relatively frequently, less expensive finishes are appropriate.

  8. Insulation: – How-much-ever possible finishes with good sound insulation properties should be selected.

  9. Cost: – While comparing cost of different finishes, not only should the cost of the material and its application be considered; but also the cost of it’s damage restoration and expected frequency of complete redecoration should be borne in mind.

Types of wall coverings

  • Paints

    • Water-based paints

    • Solvent-based paints

  • Wallpaper

  • Fabric

  • Plastic

  • Wood

  • Cork

  • Glass

  • Tiles

  • Leather

  • Inorganic wall coverings

  • Metallic wall coverings

  • Fibreglass/Spun glass

  • Acrylic (Corian)


Q.8. How will you clean and maintain the following: (a) Bidet

Wipe down the bidet regularly, at least once a week. Use vinegar or a mild household detergent squirted onto a damp cleaning cloth. Wipe over the bidet with the cloth and leave to air dry. Rinse the cleaning cloth immediately after use with hot water to keep it clean.

Clean underneath the bidet seat with a mild detergent. If your bidet has a seat, clean beneath it at least once a year. Lift the seat by pressing the button on the side of the seat near the electrical cord and pulling up with your hands. If there’s no button, lift the seat by pulling it up and forward. Clean beneath the seat with a mild detergent.

Replace the carbon air deodorizer. Unlike aerosols, which block smell with another (more pleasant) odor, carbon air deodorizers filter the air, leaving it free of unwanted odors. To ensure a fresh, clean scent, replace the carbon air deodorizer when it has stopped being effective.

Use the self-cleaning feature if applicable. Many bidet nozzles have a self-cleaning feature, making their maintenance very simple. To activate it, twist the knob to “Nozzle Cleaning.” If this feature is used regularly, you may never need to clean it manually.

Use vinegar and a toothbrush to manually clean the nozzle. For all other bidets, clean the nozzle at least once a month by pressing the cleaning button for 3 seconds until the nozzle comes forward for cleaning. Then use water mixed with vinegar and a soft toothbrush to clean the nozzle.

Soak a removable nozzle tip in vinegar to unclog it. If the nozzle has low water pressure, chances are it’s clogged.

Unclog a non-removable nozzle tip with a Ziploc bag of vinegar.[3] If the nozzle doesn’t have a removable tip, extend the nozzle and unplug the unit, then attach a vinegar-filled Ziploc bag to the nozzle with a rubber band or tape, making sure the nozzle tip is completely submerged in the vinegar.

(b) Upholstered chair

  • Fill a large bowl with hot water and a couple of drops of dish soap. {NOTE: It is more important to use HOT water if you are not using a steam cleaner} Wet down the microfiber cloth and wet the entire area that you would like to clean, giving it a quick scrub. You want this to be quite consistently wet throughout the area that you are cleaning.

  • Generously spray any heavily soiled areas or stains with the hydrogen peroxide. Leave on for at least 10 minutes.

  • Next it is time to steam clean! If you are just going for an overall clean or have a more delicate fabric, go with the microfiber cloth option.

  • Run the steam cleaner over the fabric in a grid like fashion until all the areas of the chair are covered. Spend extra time on the heavily soiled areas and scrub as needed using either the scrub brush or the microfiber pad.

  • If you do not have a steam cleaner, you will need to use a little extra man power and give the chair a good scrub with the microfiber cloth and water/dish soap mixture. If any stains remain, give it another go with the hydrogen peroxide and scrub again.

  • Let dry and you will have a brand new chair!

(c) Marble table top

STEP 1 If not using marble cleaner, mix a squirt of gentle, non-abrasive dish soap with warm water in a spray bottle and spray the counter generously. Scrub gently and wipe soapy solution off with a clean wet cloth. Repeat process until all soapy residue is gone.

STEP 2 Rub the countertop dry, and buff with a soft absorbent towel.

(d) Ceramic tiles

  • Clean up loose debris: Sweep or vacuum your tile floors regularly to keep them from getting dull. Ceramic tiles may be resistant to dirt, but sand and grit can dull the glazed surfaces.

  • Choose the right floor mop: Clean tile with mild detergent and clean water using a rag or chamois-type mop rather than a sponge mop. These mops are best for cleaning tile because sponge mops tend to push dirty water into the grout lines, making them harder to clean. Be sure to change the water frequently while mopping; dirty water equals a cloudy floor.

  • Be on the look for tile stains: If you find a discoloration, first try to determine what type of substance made the stain. Use the appropriate cleaner for the stain for the most effective clean.

  • Watch for soap residue: If your tiles look hazy even after cleaning, you might be dealing with soapy residue. Remove the film with a nonabrasive all-purpose cleaner. You could also try a homemade cleaner with mild acid (such as fresh lemon juice) on ceramic or porcelain tiles (but never on stone tiles).

  • Dry the tiles: Don’t let your glazed tile floors air-dry as the sitting water will form water spots. Take care of that by drying the floor with a clean, lint-free cloth immediately after washing.

(e) Leather sofa

  1. Make a cleaning solution by mixing equal parts water and vinegar in a bowl.

  2. Remove dust, dirt and loose particles from the surface of the leather sofa with a vacuum cleaner.

  3. In case of separation, mix the solution a few times more, and dip a soft cloth into the solution.

  4. Wring out the cloth so that it is damp (and not soaking), and begin wiping the dirty areas of the leather.

  5. Once you have wiped down the problem spots, wipe any damp areas with a dry cloth.


Q.9. Define the following (any ten):

(a) Seamstress : A seamstress works under a tailor and does minor stitching, repairs, etc.

(b) Staining : mark or discolour with something that is not easily removed.

(c) Pile lifter : A heavy duty reel-type vacuum which is used to loosen embedded soil and erect the carpet pile. Usually done before cleaning.

(d) Orthodox cleaning : In this method, the Guest Room attendant completes all the cleaning tasks in one room before proceeding to another room. On average, a GRA may be required to clean about 12-20 room in 8 hours duty.

(e) Vestibule : an antechamber, hall, or lobby next to the outer door of a building.

(f) Caddy : a small storage container, typically one with divisions.

(g) Parquet : Parquet is a geometric mosaic of wood pieces used for decorative effect in flooring. Parquet patterns are often entirely geometrical and angular—squares, triangles, lozenges—but may contain curves. The most popular parquet flooring pattern is herringbone.

(h) Jeweler’s rouge : Jeweller’s rouge is a jewellery polishing compound, used especially for achieving a high shine with precious metals such as silver and gold. Made from finely ground iron oxide, or more commonly known as “rust”, jeweller’s rouge comes in a dark red colour, following its namesake rouge.

(i) Trash bag : a plastic bag put inside a bin to hold the waste and keep the container clean

(j) Chandelier : a large, decorative hanging light with branches for several light bulbs or candles.

(k) Floor seal : Floor seals are semi-permanent finishes applied to the flooring to render it impermeable to protect the surface from dirt, stain and other liquids and to provide an easy to maintain surface. The floor surface must be clean and dry before a seal is applied or it will not ‘key’ to the surface.

(l) Surfactant : Surfactants are chemicals, whose molecules when dissolved in water possess, water seeking end (hydrophilic) and a water-repelling end (hydrophobic). They may or may not carry the positive and negative electrical charge. The molecules disperse through water and reduce the surface tension of water by overcoming the forces of attraction between the water molecules, thus allowing the water and surfactant molecules to penetrate the soil and surface.


Q.10. Fill in the blanks:

(a) Lacquering is the process, shellac dissolved in alcohol and coated over brass or copper to reduce tarnishing. (b) Glass is a transparent, lustrous, brittle material made from silica or sand. (c) Pumice stone, sand paper and steel wool which are meant for cleaning are abrasives. (d) Tarnish is a dis-colouration caused by chemical reaction between metal and substances found in water, air and food. (e) Chamois is soft leather used for polishing. (f) Deep cleaning of areas done periodically is called Deep Cleaning . (g) An alloy of copper and zinc is Brass . (h) Marble is a metamorphosed and crystallised lime stone. (i) The clay ware from which the water closets, wash basins are made of is called Ceramic. (j) Faucet is another name for taps


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