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Accommodation Operations | Solved Paper | 2014-15 | 1st Sem B.Sc HHA

Topic Wise Notes: Accommodation Operations


Please note: The answers provided below, are just for reference. Always consult your college professor if you have any queries.

 

Q.1. Housekeeping department plays an important role in the effective operation of a hotel. Justify.

Importance of Housekeeping

  • Hotel’s largest margin of profit comes from the sale of rooms because a room once made can be sold over and over again. Housekeeping helps in the sale of rooms (FO can sell the room only when the HK cleans & makes them ready for sale). A good hotel operation ensures optimal sales to get maximum profit.

  • Room sale is also dependent on the quality of decor, room facilities, cleanliness, and safety of room which is ensured by the housekeeping department.

  • It creates a “home away from home” experience

  • Housekeeping department takes a well-organized approach and technical understanding to be able to cope with the large volume of work

  • Maintains guest satisfaction by providing a clean, comfortable & safe environment

  • Contributes towards the reputation of the hotel

  • Helps in getting repeat business. Unless the room décor is appropriate, the air odour free plus cleanliness all over, the hotel may lose the guest as a potential repeat customer.

  • Satisfied guests also spread the word of mouth about the property which helps in getting more business.

  • Makes sure that the other departments work also goes on smoothly

  • The tasks performed by a housekeeping department are critical to the smooth operation of any hotel and it is a 24 X 7 X 365 operation.

OR Discuss the various functions of housekeeping department in a 5 star hotel.

Housekeeping department in hotel ensures the cleanliness, maintenance, and aesthetic appeal of all rooms and public areas. The housekeeping department not only turnarounds (prepares and clean guestrooms) on a timely manner it also cleans and maintains everything in the hotel so that the property is as fresh and attractive similar to the day when it opened the doors for the business.

The effort that the housekeeping makes in giving a guest a desirable room has a direct bearing on the guest’s experience in a hotel. Thre are more employees working in the housekeeping department when compared to any other hotel departments.

Being responsible for the turnaround of the rooms in a timely manner, housekeepings primary communications are with the front desk/reception team. Each room status is updated on a regular basis from the housekeeping to the front desk and vice versa. With new technologies available a room status update can be done via the hotel software, telephone systems, housekeeping mobile applications etc.

Housekeeping also coordinates closely with the maintenance or engineering department, as the housekeeping staff identifies different types of maintenance issues while cleaning the rooms and reports to the maintenance team for rectification or replacement. Example snags or issue with the TV, AC, Heating unit, Plumbing, Lighting, Electrical faults, Furniture, Toilet, Vanity, Tub, Towels racks, Ventilation issues etc.

The role of housekeeping can change depending upon the type or category of the hotel, for example only in a luxury or full-service hotel evening or turndown services are offered by the housekeeping department. The housekeeping department is one of the major ‘Support Centre’ in the hotel as it doesn’t generate any major revenue for the hotel.

Housekeeping is considered as a ‘back of the house’ department even though they have some direct contact to the guests; like for example while cleaning rooms, picking up laundry, providing evening or turndown services etc.

 

Q.2. Give hierarchy of the medium size housekeeping department. Give role of top three positions.


Executive Housekeeper / Director of Housekeeping

She / He is responsible and accountable for the total cleanliness and aesthetic upkeep of the hotel. The EHK supervises all housekeeping employees, has the authority to hire or discharge subordinates, plans and assigns work assignments, informs new employees of property regulations, inspects completed assignments, and requisitions supplies. Reports to: – The General Manager, or Resident Manager, or Room’s Division manager. Duties and Responsibilities

  • Organize, supervise, and coordinate the work of housekeeping personnel on a day-to-day basis.

  • Ensure excellence in housekeeping sanitation, safety, comfort, and aesthetics for hotel guests.

  • Draw up duty rosters

  • Supervise the discipline and conduct of her staff.

  • Assure proper communication within the department by conducting a regular meeting with all personnel.

  • Hire new employees, warn employees when policies are violated, and discharge employees when necessary.

  • Counsel employees on various duties and on work-related issues.

  • Motivate her staff and keep their morale high.

  • Establish and maintain standard operating procedures (SOP) for cleaning and to initiate new procedures to increase the efficiency of labor and product use.

  • Search constantly for and test new techniques and products.

  • Maintain an inventory of the furniture, linen, and movable equipment in the rooms and related premises and to ensure they are regularly checked.

  • Organize maintenance and repair of guestrooms.

  • Deal with articles that a guest may have left behind in a room.

  • Ensure the provision of proper uniforms for the hotel staff.

  • Ensure observance of hygiene and safety precautions.

  • Offer suggestions to the human resource department concerning selection recruitment, replacement, duty alterations, up-gradation, and so on.

  • Evaluate employees in order to upgrade them when openings arise.

  • Organize and supervise on-the-job and off-the-job training of staff.

  • Liaise between the maintenance and housekeeping departments.

  • Inspect and approve all supply requisitions for the housekeeping department, and to maintain par stock, inventory control, and cost-control procedures for all materials.

  • Check the reports filed and the registers maintained.

  • Maintain a time logbook for all employees within the department.

  • Be responsible for the redecoration and refurbishing of rooms, lobbies, and so on.

  • Provide a budget to the management, and undertake budget control and forecasting.

Assistant Housekeeper

Reports to: – The Executive Housekeeper or Deputy Housekeeper (if this position exists in the organization). Duties and Responsibilities

  • Be responsible for the sufficient and orderly management of cleaning, servicing, and repairing of guestrooms.

  • Be responsible for the hotel linen and check its movements and its distribution to room attendants.

  • Keep an inventory of all housekeeping supplies and check it regularly.

  • Assist the room attendants in their daily difficulties.

  • Provide the front office with a list of rooms ready for allotment to guests.

  • Organize the flower arrangements.

  • Arrange the training of staff and substitute for the executive housekeeper in case of his/her absence.

  • Update record books, registers, and files.

  • Compile the maid’s roster.

  • Check the VIP and OOO (out-of-order)

Floor Supervisors /Floor Housekeepers

Floor housekeepers have final responsibility for the condition of guestrooms. Each floor housekeeper is assigned three or more floors. She/he gives the room attendants their room assignments and the floor master keys, which are returned at the end of the day. The floor supervisor checks, supervises, and approves the attendants’ work and makes periodical inspection of the physical condition of all rooms on the floor. Reports to: – The Assistant Housekeeper and Executive Housekeeper. Duties and Responsibilities

  • Supervise the handing over of soiled linen to the laundry and the requisitioning of fresh ones from housekeeping.

  • Ensure the supply of equipment and maintenance and cleaning supplies to floors and public areas.

  • Issue floor keys to room attendants.

  • Supervise spring cleaning.

  • Report on maintenance work on her floor.

  • Coordinate with room service for clearing.

  • Maintain par stock for the respective floors/ floor pantry.

  • Coordinate with the front office manager.

  • Facilitate the provision of extra services to guests, such as baby sitters, hot-water bottles, and so on, on request.

  • Immediately report any safety or security hazard to the security department or to the management.

  • Check on scanty baggage.

  • Prepare housekeeping status reports.

  • Supervise cleaning on the allotted floors and areas- including guestrooms, corridors, staircases, and floor pantries of the allotted floors.

  • Report on standards of individual staff performance.

OR Draw a layout of a housekeeping department in a large hotel.


 

Q.3. Enumerate the desirable qualities essential for housekeeping staff.

Personnel attributes of housekeeping staff in the hospitality industry play an important role. It enhances the images of the property as well as the quality of personalization that only humans can give. These attributes are based on the following term.

  1. Pleasant Personality A result of good grooming and presentation in front of the guest. The way the staff looks is the first impression on the guest and by this look, the guest judges the quality of service/ standards provided by the organization. All HK staff should be well-groomed. Clean Crisp Uniform If long hair -Tied neat hair Minimum jewelry Light makeup Aftershave/ Perfume – not too strong H/k Attendants may be given Hair caps. Clean Footwear- comfortable, low heels Mannerisms to avoid- scratching, digging into nose/ ear, chewing gum, etc in public

  2. Physical Fitness “ A Strong Heart and Good Feet “to cope up with 24 X 7 operations and also a labor-intensive department

  3. Personal hygiene It is important since it reflects the hygiene standards of the organization.

    1. Bathe daily- no body odor

    2. Nails Clipped and clean

    3. Mouth- Odour free

    4. Scalp – clean, dandruff free

    5. Infection- report immediately …..Cuts and wounds- covered

  4. Eye for detail The critical power of observation distinguishes good service from average. This is important to make a flawless room.

  5. Cooperation H/k involves a lot of teamwork.

  6. Adaptability Technology is fast upgrading hence all H/k staff should be open to accept these changes and adapt accordingly

  7. Honesty It is essential since it is the H/k staff who have access to the guest rooms even when the guest is not present in the room

  8. Tact & Diplomacy To cope up with the different types of guests since H/k staff come in close contact with them. They should be able to handle problem guests also without being rude or hurting his/ her sentiments.

  9. Right Attitude Includes

    1. Optimism

    2. Ready to learn from own mistakes

    3. Proactive and anticipate guest needs

    4. The display even temper, courtesy, and good humor.

  10. Calm demeanor Helps in the time of emergencies when a person does not panic and handles the problem effectively.

  11. Courteous To both guests and colleagues.

  12. Punctuality Reporting for duty on time displays commitment to work.

  13. Good Memory Especially in the case of repeat guests. It feels nice if someone remembers the guest likes, dislikes or wish, etc.

 

Q.4. Write short notes on wall & floor finishes.

Floor finishes:

Hard Floors

Stone

Long life and natural in appearance. All stones are heavy and must be put on a concrete subfloor. For e.g.

  • Marble: Composition: Calcite & Calcium Carbonate. Available in a wide range of colors. More porous, soft & chemically sensitive than granite. Harmed by acid including soft drinks. Absorbs Oil. Should be sealed with penetrating sealers. Use neutral cleaners. Do not clean at high pressure.

  • Granite: Composition: Quartz & Feldspar. Hardest in nature. Resistant to most chemicals except oil. Sealed with oil-repellent sealers. Do not use hydrofluoric acid. Can be cleaned at high pressure.

  • Slate: Composition: Grains of Mica & Quartz & Chlorite, Hematite& other Minerals. Dense, but soft & easily scratched. Low porosity to oil & other liquids.Has an uneven surface. Sealed with oil repellant sealers. Never cleaned at high pressure.

Cementitious

Good for areas that take hard wear & tear as they are resistant to chipping and cracking, scratching, indentations, heat insects, and rot. Used in areas like the basement, garage, utility areas, etc. They are easy to clean but should be polished carefully as polishing can make them too slippery. The cement in these floorings is absorbent hence avoid the use of strong alkali.e.g. are

Granolithic Floor

Composed of cement & fine aggregate mortar (being granite clippings). Hard wearing. Suitable in high traffic areas. May absorb water.

Terrazzo

Composition: Marble, Quartz, Granite, Glass, in cementitious mixtures. Does not need protection from wear & tear but from absorption & stains. Water base impregnates are applied. Use only neutral Ph cleaners.

Wood Floorings

Advantages

  • Long-lasting,

  • Easy cleaning,

  • Doesn’t retain dust

  • Warm

  • Goes with all interiors

  • Simple clean up

Disadvantages/ care to be taken

  • Easily scratched.

  • Easily dented

  • Cannot take excessive wear & water.

  • Needs occasional polishing & sealing.

Ceramic Tiles

  • Clayware is available in a great variety of qualities, colors & sizes.

  • Not affected by water, grease, acid, or alkalis.

  • May crack or break due to heavyweights.

  • Maybe glazed or unglazed.

Terra Kotta

  • Hard baked, brownish-red earthen wave often glazed & colored.

  • Not installed in a high traffic area.

  • May crumble & show wear easily.

Porcelain

  • Unglazed

  • Dense

  • Imperious

  • Fine-grained & smooth.

  • Fire hardened – very hard

  • Can be cleaned at high pressure.

Quarry

  • The most common colors are dark red, brown & grey.

  • Fire hardened – very hard

  • Can be cleaned at high pressure.

Resin Flooring

  • Consists of synthetic resins, usually an epoxy, polyester, or polyurethane with hardness by using hardness.

  • Sometimes vinyl & marble chips are included.

  • Unaffected by spillage of water, food, alcohol & chemicals.

  • In spite of being shiny, they are non-skid.

Bitumastic

  • Jointless flooring consists of asphalt rolled in a hot plastic state.

  • Soft in texture.

  • Impermeable to water.

  • Softens with heat & dents easily.

  • Harmed by spirits, oil & acids.

  • Cost is low.

Magnesite

  • Consists of wood flour & other fillers mixed with burnt magnesite.

  • Hardwearing & great compressive strength.

  • Thermally insulating, non-skid, frame retardant & spark proof.

  • Extremely porous so no washing.

  • Harmed by water, chemicals & abrasives.

Cleaning of Hard floorings

  • Daily cleaning – Sweep and damp mop/ Vaccum cleaning

  • Periodically – wash/ scrub with detergent suds. Rinse Dry and Polish.

  • Sealed to make the floor non-slip and resistant to dirt.

  • For tiles care to be taken to clean the grouting regularly with detergent and toothbrush.

Semi-Hard Finishes

  • Resistant (except thermoplastic tiles).

  • Good appearance.

  • Unaffected by insects, pests & fungi.

  • Easy to clean

  • Less permanent than hard floorings

Thermoplastic Tiles

  • Made from asphaltic binds with inert fillers & pigments.

  • Applied with water-based polish & may get slippery.

  • Hard & noisy

  • Get dents easily

  • Softens with heat.

  • Non-porous but harmed by strong alkalis, grease, spirits.

  • Durable & cheap.

Vinyl Floor finishes

  • Manufactured from P.V.C synthetic resins, inert filers & pigments.

  • Resistant to damage but very sensitive to heat.

They are of 4 types:-

  • Vinyl asbestos

  • Flexible Vinyl flooring.

  • Cushioned Vinyl floor.

  • Slip-resistant flooring.

  • Avoid excessive use of water, stripping & abrasives.

Rubber Floorings

  • Available in tiles or sheets.

  • During manufacturing, rubber & fillings material pigments is vulcanized.

  • It is soft, quiet, resistant & comfortable.

  • Non-absorbent & resist water.

  • Harmed by sprit, grease, alkali’s & coarse abrasives.

Linoleum

  • Composition: Mixture of powdered cork, resin, linseed oil, & pigments of it on jute canvas. Made to heat & pressure.

  • Polished very often.

  • Dents easily & damaged by alkali’s

  • Damp mopping is done using mild detergents.

  • Further preservation adds baby oil in a small amount to the mop water.

Cork tiles

  • Composition: made from the outer back of cork of oak tree with natural resins.

  • Warm and restful appearance.

  • Absorbent & very sensitive to heat.

  • Avoid indentations, excessive water, abrasives, and high alkaline cleaners.

Cleaning of Semi-Hard Floors

  1. Daily cleaning – Sweep and Damp Mop / Vaccum cleaning

  2. Periodic cleaning – Soft scrubbing with Neutral detergent lather. Rinse with a damp mop. Polish. If it is a sealed flooring use a self shine polish occasionally

  3. For rubber, floorings wash only when dirty and don’t over-wet

Soft Foor Finishes

These are resilient floorings and include all types of carpets, rugs, and mats. They are quiet and slip-resistant.

Carpets

  • Consist of a backing and a surface pile.

  • The backing may be jute, nylon or polyester.

  • The pile may be of wool, cotton, nylon or polyester.

  • Used for their appearance, warmth, safety factor and sound insulation.

Care and Maintenance

  • Regular maintenance program since they are easily damaged

  • Do not drag anything on a carpet

  • New carpets should be lightly cleaned with a hand brush or a carpet sweeper. Trim off loose tufts

  • Vacuum clean daily.

  • Periodic cleaning includes shampooing , hot water extraction or dry powdering

    • Shampooing – Shampoos can be of two types Liquid and dry foam. Liquid shampoos produce very little foam but tend to leave a residue that traps dirt making it necessary to clean carpets frequently. Dry foam shampoos are also liquid but leave a dry foam on the surface of the carpet after application – hence the name dry foam. The foam loosens and lifts out the dirt, holding it on the surface of the carpet pile until it can be removed by dry suction. Dry foam shampoos contain some solvent in addition to the detergent to assist in the removal of greasy soil. They also take less time to dry

    • Hot water extraction: done by a hot water extraction machine that injects a nonfoaming shampoo solution at high pressure through the carpet. Simultaneously it extracts the solution and soil.

    • Dry powdering: A powder containing absorbents (sawdust), solvents & drying agents is sprinkled on the carpet & left for 15 to 20 minutes. The powder absorbs the grease & dirt & latter vacuum cleaned.

    • Regular maintenance program since they are easily damaged

  • Do not drag anything on a carpet

  • New carpets should be lightly cleaned with a hand brush or a carpet sweeper. Trim off loose tufts

  • Vacuum clean daily.

  • Periodic cleaning includes shampooing , hot water extraction or dry powdering

    • Shampooing – Shampoos can be of two types Liquid and dry foam. Liquid shampoos produce very little foam but tend to leave a residue that traps dirt making it necessary to clean carpets frequently. Dry foam shampoos are also liquid but leave a dry foam on the surface of the carpet after application – hence the name dry foam. The foam loosens and lifts out the dirt, holding it on the surface of the carpet pile until it can be removed by dry suction. Dry foam shampoos contain some solvent in addition to the detergent to assist in the removal of greasy soil. They also take less time to dry

    • Hot water extraction: done by a hot water extraction machine that injects a nonfoaming shampoo solution at high pressure through the carpet. Simultaneously it extracts the solution and soil.

    • Dry powdering: A powder containing absorbents (sawdust), solvents & drying agents is sprinkled on the carpet & left for 15 to 20 minutes. The powder absorbs the grease & dirt & latter vacuum cleaned.


Types of walls:

The selection of wall covering has a great deal to do with the type of wall being covered.

Brick: – Make sure that there is no dampness on the wall if brick walls have been left unpainted they can be covered with a clear sealant to prevent them from crumbling or becoming dust traps.

Old plaster: – Plaster is suitable for most wall coverings and paints. However damp plastering will need stripping and renewing after the moisture problem has been treated at the source. If the plaster is uneven or cracked, use wallpaper or other covering materials (rather than a finish) or line the wall lining or ingrain paper before painting or finishing.

New Plaster: – It must be absolutely dry before decorating can begin if it is to be painted before it is absolutely dry (for decorating effects), emulsion paint is better as it is least likely to blister and allows the wall breathe. Wallpaper is not to be used until the surface is bone dry.

Types of wall coverings

  • Paints

  1. Water-based paints

  2. Solvent-based paints

  • Wallpaper

  • Fabric

  • Plastic

  • Wood

  • Cork

  • Glass

  • Tiles

  • Leather

  • Inorganic wall coverings

  • Metallic wall coverings

  • Fibreglass/Spun glass

  • Acrylic (Corian)

Paints: – Paints are a mixture of four important ingredients: pigments, additives, binders and solvents.

Pigments render colour and opacity.

Additives give special properties such as resistance to rust and fungus.

Binders hold the paints together and bind it to the surface for durability.

Solvents enable brushing and rolling across a surface.

Paints offer a wide choice of colour, effects and degree of gloss. Paints used on walls are usually for decoration rather than protection. Paints can be easily applied and cleaned too. Depending on the binders or vehicles used, paints can be broadly classified into two classes: water-based paints and solvents based points.

Water-based paints: In these types, the contents are mixed with clean water only. The various types are:

Limewash: – These are colour washes based on lime (that is, calcium hydroxide, Ca(OH)2), inorganic alkalis, fast pigments, and few other additives. Whitewash is a lime wash without pigments. The ingredients of a lime wash are suspended in water prior to application.

Distemper: – This is superior to lime wash and is available in a wide range of colours. It may be defined as water-based paint consisting of whiting (white chalk), some colouring pigment (in case of coloured distemper), and glue mixed in water. It is available in the form of dry powder or a paste.

Emulsion paint: – This type of paint is used as a decorative finish. There are three major types of emulsion paints­:

  1. Polyvinyl acetate

  2. Styrene and

  3. Acrylic resin

Acrylic emulsions have good adhesive properties, are washable, and are easy to maintain.

Premium emulsions are based on pure acrylic latex and latex and high-opacity pigments. Emulsion paints are thinned with water, easy to apply, and dries rapidly (within 2 hours). It is durable and washable. Two coats of emulsion paints are necessary for longevity.

Silicate paint: – this consists of a thin suspension of alkali-resistant inorganic pigments and extenders. It is not damaged by the alkali in cement. It is also porous, hence allowing moisture to escape. It may be directly applied on brick, plaster and concrete surfaces after wetting; no primer coat is necessary.

Cement paints: – This type of paint consists of white cement, alkali-fast pigments, accelerators and other additives. It is available as a dry powder and can be found in several shades. This is most widely used as an external paint for building exteriors.

Solvent-based paints:- These are made up of six main constituents:

Base, filler or extender, colouring pigments, vehicles or binders, solvent or thinner, dryer.

Base is a metallic oxide in powder form, serving essentially as a pigment and forming the chief ingredients of the paint. The most important purpose of adding this base to the paint is to make an opaque coating to hide the surface to be painted. White lead, red lead, zinc oxide, iron oxide are the bases commonly used.

Filler or extenders are cheap pigments added to the paints to reduce its cost. In addition, this substance modifies the weight if the paint and makes it more durable. Commonly used fillers are barium sulphate, lithopone, silica, silicate of magnesia or alumina, gypsum, and charcoal.

Colouring pigments are mixed to the paints to get the desired colour.

Vehicles or binders are liquid that acts as a binder for various pigments-bases, extenders and colouring pigments. Refined linseed oil is a commonly used vehicle in oil paints. Oils from soya bean, fish, sunflower seeds and tobacco are also being used as vehicles, in various combinations with or without linseed oil.

Solvent or thinner, a liquid that thins the consistency of the paint film in the container and evaporates after the paint after the paint film has been applied so that it may solidify. Turpentine, pure oils, petroleum and spirit are commonly used solvents.

Dryer are group of material containing metallic compounds that are used in small amounts for accelerating the drying of the paint film. Lead acetate, manganese dioxide and cobalt are commonly used dryers.

The different types of solvent based paints are:

Alkyd paints: – These paints are based on synthetic resins combined with vegetable oil such as linseed oil. These are generally easier to apply and have better durability and wearing properties than older types of paint. They have good opacity and excellent fastness to light as well. They are available in a wide range of colours.

Aluminium Paints: –These are used for painting wood and metal surfaces. Aluminium forms the base in this type of paint. This paint is well established for its good waterproofing and weather-resisting qualities. It is not used for painting large areas of walls. It is commonly used for painting metal roofs, machinery, oil or gas storage tanks etc.

Anti-corrosive paints: – these generally used as metal protection paints. Linseed oil is generally used as a vehicle. Sometimes dryers and inert fillers are added to modify the paint to the requirements.

Asbestos paints: – this type of paint is especially suitable for patching up or stopping leakage in metal roofs. Asbestos or fibrous coatings are sometimes used as moisture-proof covering coats for the outer face of the basement walls as well.

Bituminous paints: – These are alkali resistant and are chiefly used for painting exterior brickwork and plastered surfaces. They are also used for waterproofing and protecting iron and steel, and are commonly applied on structural steelwork that is underwater.

Bronze paints: – this type of paint is often used for painting interior of exterior metallic surfaces. Aluminium bronze, copper bronze and copper powder are the pigments commonly used in this type of paint.

Cellulose paints: – This type of paint is made from celluloid sheets and amyl acetate substitutes. For making a superior type of paint, nitrocotton is used. It dries very quickly and possesses the additional advantages of hardness, flexibility and smoothness.

Enamel paints: – This type of paint is made by adding white lead or zinc white to a vehicle comprising a varnish. On drying, it forms a smooth, glossy, relatively hard and permanent film. It is commonly used for painting porches, decks, stairs, concrete surfaces and so on.

Oil paints: – this type of paint can be used for almost all surfaces, from woodwork to fabrics. Oil paints basically consist of two main components- a base and a vehicle. Oil paints are manufactured in different shades and grades and are very commonly used.

Characteristics of good paint: –

the characteristics of good paints are listed below

  • It should stick to the surface well and should be able to seal the pores.

  • Its consistency should provide easy workability.

  • The paint film should dry rapidly.

  • The thickness of the paint film should be adequate for good protection and decoration of the surface.

  • The dried paint film should be able to withstand the effect of adverse weather for a long time.

  • It should offer resistance to cracking and flaking.

  • It should possess good moisture maintenance.

  • Its colour should not fade with the passage of time.

Care and cleaning of paints:-

  • Remove light dust with a duster, wall broom or vacuum cleaner attachments.

  • Wash when necessary (washable paints), with warm water and suitable detergent to remove heavily ingrained or tenacious dust or dirt. This is important on low sheen surfaces as dry cleaning tend to force dust into the surface.

  • When washing, start from the bottom and work upward using a sponge or worn distemper brush. Change the solution frequently. Rinse from the top downwards, using frequent changes of water. Sponge dry.

  • Low sheen finishes, especially emulsion paints, may tend to ‘polish up’ if isolated areas of bad soiling are rubbed vigorously with a damp cloth. Clean such areas by very light scrubbing with a damp nail brush.

  • Never apply wax polishes or oil to gloss painted surfaces to revive them. The residue may cause subsequent paint coating to peel, or fail to dry.

  • Do not use harsh abrasives, strong solvents or strong soda solutions to clean paintwork. The film may be damaged or softened.

Wallpaper

This type of wall covering evolved as an inexpensive substitute for tapestries of the wealthy. The choice of wallpaper depends upon the dimensions and uses of the room. Wallpapers have a warmer appearance than paint. They can be stuck back even if they are torn. Smooth finishes do not catch dust, but easily show up marks.

The various kinds of wallpaper available are:

Lining Paper: – A preliminary covering of plain paper that gives the wall an even porosity, which helps when painting. On surfaces such as painted walls, this can be essential. There are various grades. It is best to avoid thin papers and use a heavy grade to conceal uneven walls.

Surface-printed papers: – The cheaper papers are called the pulp. Higher-quality papers, known as grounded papers, are given a coating of colour before the design is printed on these. Such wallpapers vary in weight and thickness. Thin papers are cheap but tear easily when wet.

Washable papers: – A transparent waterproof film stop moisture from damaging design. These are especially suitable for bathrooms and kitchens. They can be easily cleaned with a damp sponge.

Embossed papers: – The design is pressed into paper to make it stand out in relief. This process produces wood-like grain, imitation leather, and textile effects. Duplex-embossed papers have designs with more depth since two layers of papers are bounded together before the design is impressed.

Metallic papers: – these are made from patterned foil glued to a paper backing. Their reflective surface accentuates any unevenness in the walls, however, so they should be used only on a perfectly flat surface.

Hand-printed papers: -each roll is prepared separately and therefore costs more than machine-printed paper. The designs are outlined more sharply.

Other variations in wallpaper include Anaglypta, supagypta, ingrained paper, lincrusta, flock, wood-chip papers, paper-backed hessian, Japanese grasscloth, paper-backed wools, woven grass, felts cork, silk and other textile materials.

Care and cleaning of wallpapers: –

  • Remove surface dust with a wall broom or vacuum cleaner attachments (low suction fro flocking papers).

  • Remove marks by rubbing with soft rubber or a piece of soft bread. If the paper is sponge able, wipe with a damp cloth or sponge.

  • Attempt to remove grease with a proprietary grease absorber.

Fabric wall coverings

These days, wall fabrics fall into two main categories: fabric that actually surfaces a wall like wallpaper and those that are draped loosely across a wall.

Tapestry, canvas, and silk fabrics are most commonly used. Almost any fabric can be used as a wall covering. It should be remembered that wool materials may be attacked by moth and if adequate precautions are not taken.

Wild silk and other beautiful fabrics are often padded for heat and sound insulation, and for effect, they may be stretched taut, gathered, or pleated into a frame. Silk tapestries are expensive wall coverings and thus are more usually found in luxury establishments.

Care and cleaning of fabric wall coverings: –

  • Remove surface dust by brushing or vacuum cleaner attachments.

  • For the more beautiful hangings, when necessary, send to a firm of dry cleaners who are specialized in this type of work.

  • Where canvas is stuck to the walls, scrub very lightly using warm water and synthetic detergent where necessary.

Plastic

Many types of plastic wall coverings are available now and they are becoming increasingly popular; some are more decorative than other and some afford sound insulation, but all, owing to their abrasion resistance, are more hardwearing and easily cleaned than other wall coverings. As they are nonporous, there is a greater tendency for the growth of moulds so the adhesives should contain fungicides. The main types are as follows: –

  1. Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) or other synthetic materials bonded to either a paper or fabric backing, e.g. Baladore, Fablon etc.

  2. Laminated plastic produced as surface boards or as a veneer that requires sticking to plywood. Melamine is the resin frequently used during the manufacturing of these plastic laminated which often simulate wood paneling

  3. Plastic wall tiles imitate ceramic tiles

  4. Vinyl flocked papers are velvety piles of the flock, mostly synthetic, stuck in patterns over the background vinyl wallpaper.

Some other types of plastic wall coverings are paper or fabric-backed vinyl, expanded polystyrene, clear acrylic-plastic sheeting etc.

Care and cleaning of plastic wall covering: –

  • Remove surface dust with duster, wall broom or vacuum cleaner attachments,

  • Wash, when necessary, with warm water and synthetic detergents.

Wood

The wood used for paneling is usually hard, well seasoned, and of a decorative appearance, and they may cover the wall completely or from a dado. Wood paneling may be solid or veneered: it last for years providing precautions are taken in respect of dry rot and woodworm but the initial cost is rather high.

Care and cleaning of wood: –

  • Dust and occasionally polish.

  • Remove old polish periodically using white spirit or vinegar and water and then polish.

Cork

This offers dramatic and luxurious effects and is easily installed. Its chief virtue is sound control. Its main disadvantage is its perishability.

Care and cleaning of cork: –

  • Brush or vacuum

  • Sponge away any marks gently with lukewarm water and mild detergent.

  • Do not over wet.

Glass wall covering

Glass can be used in the form of decorative tiles in the same way as ceramic tiles and these should not be confused with glass bricks which allows the passage and form the wall itself.

Glass as a wall covering is frequently used in the form of mirrors which are plate glass backed with a coating of colored metallic paint, usually silver, and this reflects the light. Mirrors may be above the dado or may cover the whole wall.

Care and cleaning of glass: –

  • Dust or wipe with a damp duster or scrim while proprietary cleansers or methylated spirits can be used.

  • When cleaning mirrors, care should be taken to prevent the backs from becoming damp.

Fiberglass/spun glass

These wall coverings can be almost indistinguishable from old woodwork or weathered plaster if properly painted. This material can be poured into molds to duplicate just about any shape or surface.

Care and cleaning of fiberglass: –

Fiberglass is easy to clean. It requires only dusting or a bit wiping with a damp cloth.

Metallic wall coverings

Metals may be used on walls for their decorative and hygienic qualities. Metal such as copper and anodized Aluminium are decorative and may be used for effect in such areas as bars, where the metal – in combination with rows of bottles and interesting lighting – is most impressive. Other metals, usually stainless steel in the form of tiles, may be used in kitchens, where they present a durable, easily cleaned hygienic surface area. Metal skirting boards provide coved edges between walls and floor surfaces. The metal foils are durable and washable.

Care and cleaning of metallic wall coverings: –

  • A soft brush is required to clean the indented portions.

  • Daily dusting is required.

  • Wipe with a sponge wrung out in mild detergent, dry with a duster.

Tiles

Long related to an outdoor area or limited to kitchen and bathroom walls, tiles have finally come into their own again, with ceramic and mosaic patterns that brighten and create a cool, airy feeling in the room being most popular. Generally easy to clean, the main drawback of tiles is that the grouting may become discoloured or chipped till tiles loosen.

Care and cleaning of tiles: –

  • Clean grouting with a soft brush dipped in a bleach solution and rinse.

  • Wipe down with a sponge wrung out in mild detergent solution and rinse well.

  • Dry with a duster

Leather

Animal hides are extremely expensive and very decorative. They may be padded and studded with brass studs, and they do not usually cover a complete wall surface. They may be found in luxury establishments in parts of restaurants or bars, but are too expensive to be found in most places. They are also prone to attack by mildew. Nowadays, the effects of leather may be simulated by plastic where required.

Care and cleaning of leather: –

  • Daily dusting or suction cleaning is required.

  • If soiled, wipe the leather with a soft cloth wrung out of warm water and mild detergents. Then damp dust with clean water.

  • Dry thoroughly.

  • Occasionally leather may be polished with a good furniture polish cream to keep it supple.

OR List the various manual equipment used in the housekeeping department. Suggest the care and maintenance for the same.

Brushes

  • Brushes should be gently tapped on a hard surface to loosen dust and debris after the cleaning process.

  • Frequent washing with water is avoidable since the brushes may lose some of their stiffness in this way. If they must be washed frequently, the final rinse should be in cold saline water to help the brushes retain their stiffness.

  • Brushes should be cleaned of all fluff and threads before washing. They may be washed in warm, mild soapy water. A disinfectant should be added to the rinsing water for toilet brushes

  • If brushes with natural bristles (vegetable or animal origin) have been used for wax polishing. Washing soda (1 tbsp to 2 litres of water) should be added to remove grease thoroughly.

  • Brushes should be washed by beating the head up and down, with the bristles facing downwards, so that water splashes up between the tufts. They should be rinsed be in the same way in cold water. After shaking off excess water, the brushes should be left to dry in such a way that the remaining water may drip off the side of the brush or the top of the headstock.

  • Brushes should never be left resting on their bristles, else they will splay out; if left resting on ‘ their stock, water will rot the stock in time. The best way would be to hang the brushes bristle downward. When possible, brushes should be dried in the sun or open air.

  • To extend the life of a brush, lacquer should be applied to the stock and handle with an oil Can and allowed to harden.

Brooms

  • Brooms should be shaken free of dust and fluff. They should never be stored standing on their bristle, or the bristles will bend out of shape. resulting in inefficient cleaning.

  • Brooms should be stored either lying horizontally or hanging bristles downward.

  • Soft brooms should never be used on wet surfaces.

  • Stiff brooms such as the coconut fibre brooms can be used on wet surfaces, but must afterwards be cleaned thoroughly in saline water and dried in the sun before storing.

Box Sweepers

  • The friction brush should be kept clean. else the efficiency of the equipment will be seriously impaired.

  • After the cleaning process, the dustpans should be emptied of all the collected dust.

Dry Mops

  • Mops should be shaken well after use outdoors.

  • The mop heads should be easily detachable so that they can be frequently washed in hot water with detergent.

  • The use of soap-free detergent will prevent the formation of scum that clogs the fibres of the head.

  • The mop must be worked up and down in at least two changes of clean, hot water.

  • The clean mop should then be tightly squeezed out, shaken well to get rid of excess moisture. and left to dry in the open air.

  • Once dry, the mops may need to be re-impregnated.

Wet Mops

  • Mops should be taken outdoors after use and shaken well to remove excess moisture. Then these mops may be washed in the same way as dry mops.

  • Detachable heads are easier to clean and maintain. However. drying is the most important part of mop care as bacteria require moisture to multiply.

  • A disinfectant to discourage their growth is effective only for a short period of time, so leaving them damp means letting germs breed.

  • Damp mops should be renewed as soon as there are signs of wear.

  • They should be stored in such a way that air is allowed to circulate around the mop head all.

  • Disinfectant or bleach should never be used with a cellulose sponge head. Sponge heads should be washed and rinsed after use, squeezed out excess water, and dried well.

  • The Sponge head should be stored by hanging.

Polish Applicators

  • Polish applicators should not be washed with water.

  • Wiping away excess polish with newspaper or rags before it dries should suffice.

  • It is important to label the applicators with the type of polish for which they are to be used so that each applicator is used with just one kind of polish to avoid mixing different products.

 

Q.5. Write in brief about the inter-departmental co-operation of the housekeeping department with front office department and maintenance.

With Maintenance

  • The housekeeping department depends on maintenance to keep things in order.

  • While carrying out their scheduled work, housekeeping employees may find some deficiencies in the hotel facilities, such as faulty electrical plugs, dripping faucets, leaking pipes or malfunctioning air-conditioning units etc.

  • A need for urgent repairs is reported to maintenance over the telephone and these requests are usually taken into action immediately.

  • There are various heads under which maintenance work is done they are:

  • Electrical work: air conditioning and heating; fused bulbs, lights and lamps that are not functioning; defective plugs and plug points; short circuits; and faulty geysers, refrigerators, and minibar fall under this category.

  • Boiler work: this is necessary to maintain a supply of hot water to the guestroom.

  • Mechanical work: this entails repair or replacement of any faulty equipment, such as vacuum cleaners, ice-cube machines, and so on.

  • Plumbing work: this deals with faulty faucets (taps), showers, drainage systems, water closets, and so on.

  • Carpentry work: broken of shaky furniture; mirrors and cupboards in less than peak condition, and fresh woodwork are all part of this.

With Front Office

  • To ensure efficient rooming of guests, both housekeeping and front office must inform each other of changes in a room’s status. Knowing whether a room is occupied, vacant, on change, out of order (OOO), under repair, or similar for proper room management

  • There should be coordination to clean front office public areas

  • There must be coordination between housekeeping and front office department to share information on occupancy levels which helps to forecast occupancy for the year and makes it easier to draw up a budget, establish par stock levels and estimate required staff strength.

  • There should be coordination know about the daily room report and housekeeping discrepancy report.

  • It also helps to gear renovations and spring cleaning to low occupancy periods thereby preventing loss of revenue.

  • The housekeeping and front office department also coordinate with each other for other important information which requires special attention like

  • VIPs in the house: this information is essential so that the staff can take a little extra care and keener precautions in cleaning and supervising VIP rooms.

  • Groups in the house: the group rooming list must be provided before the group’s arrival to the housekeeping as groups tend to move together in terms of arrival, departure, sightseeing tours, and meals. Their rooms need to be readied together in view of strict time parameters. Group rooming lists enable the HK department to organize their work and have the group’s room ready on time.

  • Crews in the house: Sometimes the arrival of a crew and the departure of another crew from the same airline may overlap. In such circumstances, it is important for the allotted rooms to be cleaned within a short period of time. Thus for this, there should be effective coordination between front office and housekeeping.

  • Flowers: sometimes the management extends its compliments to a guest with a special gesture of a flower arrangement in the room as recognition of the importance of a person. This requirement of flower arrangements for certain guests is conveyed to housekeeping by the front office on a daily basis.

  • Apart from the above communications the front office needs to depend on housekeeping for the provision of clean uniforms to its staff.

 

Q.6. Give short answer (any two): (a) Duties of Executive Housekeeper.

  • Organize, supervise, and coordinate the work of housekeeping personnel on a day-to-day basis.

  • Ensure excellence in housekeeping sanitation, safety, comfort, and aesthetics for hotel guests.

  • Draw up duty rosters

  • Supervise the discipline and conduct of her staff.

  • Assure proper communication within the department by conducting a regular meeting with all personnel.

  • Hire new employees, warn employees when policies are violated, and discharge employees when necessary.

  • Counsel employees on various duties and on work-related issues.

  • Motivate her staff and keep their morale high.

  • Establish and maintain standard operating procedures (SOP) for cleaning and to initiate new procedures to increase the efficiency of labor and product use.

  • Search constantly for and test new techniques and products.

  • Maintain an inventory of the furniture, linen, and movable equipment in the rooms and related premises and to ensure they are regularly checked.

  • Organize maintenance and repair of guestrooms.

  • Deal with articles that a guest may have left behind in a room.

  • Ensure the provision of proper uniforms for the hotel staff.

  • Ensure observance of hygiene and safety precautions.

  • Offer suggestions to the human resource department concerning selection recruitment, replacement, duty alterations, up-gradation, and so on.

  • Evaluate employees in order to upgrade them when openings arise.

  • Organize and supervise on-the-job and off-the-job training of staff.

  • Liaise between the maintenance and housekeeping departments.

  • Inspect and approve all supply requisitions for the housekeeping department, and to maintain par stock, inventory control, and cost-control procedures for all materials.

  • Check the reports filed and the registers maintained.

  • Maintain a time logbook for all employees within the department.

  • Be responsible for the redecoration and refurbishing of rooms, lobbies, and so on.

  • Provide a budget to the management, and undertake budget control and forecasting.

(b) Conventional cleaning and block cleaning.

Orthodox/ Traditional cleaning: In this method, the Guest Room attendant completes all the cleaning tasks in one room before proceeding to another room. On average, a GRA may be required to clean about 12-20 room in 8 hours duty.

Block cleaning: In this method, GRA moves from one dirty room to another and completes the same task in every room before returning for starting the next task on the list. This involves blocking several rooms at a time and usually, more than 1 GRA are involved in cleaning at a time. Different GRA’s pick up different tasks. (Bed making, Toilet Cleaning, Room cleaning, replenishing supplies).

(c) Soapy detergent and synthetic detergent.

Soapy detergent

Synthetic detergent

Soapy detergent is manufactured from lye and fat.

Synthetic detergents are made fro petroleum products.

Soapy detergents are biodegradable.

Synthetic detergents are non-biodegradable.

Soapy detergent don’t produce lather with hard water and are not able to clean the cloth.

Synthetic Detergents clean the cloth even in hard water.

A lot of water is needed to remove soap from the cloth.

Synthetic Detergents are removed very easily so less quantity of water is needed.

 

Q.7. Define detergent. Enumerate qualities of a good detergent.

Detergents are those cleaning agents, which contain significant quantities of a group of chemicals known as ‘Surfactants’ (chemicals that have water and soil attracting properties). A number of other chemicals are frequently included to produce detergents suitable for a specific use.A good detergent should –

  • Reduce the surface tension of water so that the cleaning solution can penetrate the soil

  • Emulsify soil and lift it from the surface

  • Be soluble in cold water

  • Be effective in hard water and a wide range of temperatures.

  • Be hard on the surface that has to be cleaned. Clean quickly and with little agitation.

  • Suspend soil in a cleaning solution, and once the soil is removed, to hold it in suspension and not let it redeposit.

  • Rinse easily and leave no streaks or scum

  • Be economical to user

  • Be harmless to the skin and article.

  • Be bio-degradable

OR Discuss use of Eco-friendly products in housekeeping.

Toiletries

More and more hotels are opting for toiletry ranges evolved after research and experimentation on the potent healing, curative, and therapeutic properties of herbs, their extracts, and essential oils on the skin and hair, especially as laid down in Ayurveda. These products are also not tested upon animals and tend to be biodegradable. Some of the herbs and natural substances frequently used in toiletries such as shampoos, conditioners, creams, lotions, and so on are aloe vera, liquorice, citrus fruit, Indian gooseberry, neem, sunflower, basil, pumpkin, cucumber, turmeric, sandalwood, apricot, mace, clove, nutmeg, coriander, rose, henna, clay (especially China clay), alum, and honey.

Textiles

Some international chains and ecotels are experimenting with textiles made of bamboo fibres as an environmentally sustainable material for bed and bath linen and uniforms. Bamboo is one of the world’s most prolific, regenerative crops and is grown without the use of any pesticides or fertilizers. Fabrics made of bamboo are naturally antibacterial and hypoallergenic. Bamboo fibres are usually blended with cotton (65%: 35% or 40%: 60%) to yield more absorbent, softer, and smell resistant luxury bath linen than normal ones. Bamboo fabrics have a unique silky texture and are superior to cotton in terms of softness, durability, and comfort and are therefore ideal for the manufacture of bed linen. The fabrics do not pill. The bamboo fibre under the microscope shows various gaps and holes and hence the fabrics made out of it can rapidly absorb and evaporate moisture, making them exceptionally comfortable. Moreover, bamboo is cool in summer and warm in winter.

Energy-conserving Products

Housekeepers are now looking for products and equipment that help conserve energy. One such product is the jet hand-dryer that produces bi-directional jets of cold air jets that come to a head at 68 m/s to leave wet hands bone dry in seconds, in an alternative to the conventional hot-air drying process. The dryer is activated by placing the hands in the dryer bin, whereby the jet starts up automatically. The product’s primary advantage is the enormous power saving due to its low energy consumption compared to the conventional hot-air model: this machine runs at 700W, whereas the conventional hot-air dryers run at 2000W. This leads to huge savings in power bills-often as much as 67 per cent.

Housekeepers and interior designers today also have at their disposal energy-efficient lamps that consume a mere 9W of power and give the same light output as a 60W bulb. This can reduce power tariffs by as much as 80 per cent without taking away the aesthetic appeal of the property. Some trends in lighting that have been gaining momentum in Indian hotels are the use of luminaries and LEDs with sensor technology, compact luminaries and compact halogen lamps.

 

Q.8. Explain the following terms:

(a) Drugget : a coarse woven fabric used to make floor coverings.

(b) Swabs : a mop or other absorbent device for cleaning or mopping up a floor or other surface.

(c) Squeegee : a scraping implement with a rubber-edged blade set on a handle, typically used for cleaning windows.

(d) Buffing : Buffing is the act of leveling out residue or excess of a certain applied product. In many cases it will either increase the gloss, or even out the residue to create an uniform look.

(e) Abrasive : a substance or material capable of polishing or cleaning a hard surface by rubbing or grinding.

(f) Houseman : The house person’s job involves heavy physical work as assigned, such as carpet cleaning, window cleaning, carrying heavy pieces of furniture, washing public areas, garbage clearance, and also complementing the work of room attendants on guest floors.

(g) Valet : a person employed to clean or park cars.

(h) Tarnish : lose or cause to lose lustre, especially as a result of exposure to air or moisture.

(i) Floor seal : Floor sealing is a method of protecting floors that uses a polymer-based coating. It is primarily applied to vinyl flooring but works well to protect any porous floor surface.

(j) Dust sheet : a large sheet for covering furniture or flooring to protect it from dust or while decorating.

 

Q.9. Answer briefly or give reasons (any five): (a) Mention 4 don’t’s to be followed by room maid on duty.

  • do not smoke, drink or chew gum while on duty.

  • do not use guest room telephone for your personal calls

  • do not ask for any tips from the guest

  • do not sell any of the guest property to the guest under any circumstances

(b) Why sweeping is done before dusting and dusting is done before vacuum cleaning.

If you save dusting until the end of your cleaning routine, dirt particles will linger in the air and eventually land back on your surfaces, meaning your next dusting will come sooner than you’d like.

(c) Why chambermaids use chambermaids trolley.

Use of maid cart can reduce the valuable time of a housekeeper as it provides an assurance regarding availability of all guest supplies together.

(d) Floor should be clean and dry before applying a floor seal.

If the floor is not 100% dry, the new coats of floor finish will not set or cure properly.

(e) Enlist the registers maintain at the central desk of housekeeping department

Registers / reports maintained in Housekeeping control desk:

  • Departure register

  • Expected Arrival Register

  • Room Status Report

  • Guest call Register

  • Mini bar and Laundry Posting Reports

  • Control desk checklist

  • Missing item Register

  • Breakage Register

  • Lost and Found Register

(f) Maid’s trolley should be pulled rather than pushed.

because when you pull, the swivel wheels lead. When you pull, you just move the handle the direction you want to go. When you push, you must move the handle in the opposite direction, swinging wide before the turn.

 

Q.10. Spot the odd one out.

(a) Valet bag, disposable bag, laundry bag. (b) Sani fresh, harpic, Dettol. (c) Sheer curtain, shower curtain, heavy curtain. (d) Brasso, silvo, silverfish. (e) Dust sheet, bed sheet, crinkle sheet. (f) Hand towel, face towel, bathmat. (g) Vacuum cleaner, scrubbing machine, sani bin. (h) Water closet, bidet, vitreous China. (i) Room attendant, linen attendant, bell boy. (j) Carpet brush, toilet brush, glass cloth.

 

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