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Non-Alcoholic Beverages


Classification: Non-Alcoholic Beverages

The beverage is classified into two types Alcoholic and Non-Alcoholic beverages. Alcoholic beverages further divided into three categories fermented, distilled and cocktails and non-alcoholic into stimulating, nourishing, and refreshing.


Non- alcoholic beverage is a potable liquid that has either no ethyl alcohol in it or the alcohol percentage is less than 0.5% by volume.


Classification Of Non-alcoholic Beverage

Stimulating drink/beverage: These are consumed to stimulate our mental and physical activities. Eg. Tea and coffee

Refreshing drink/beverage: These are drinks that are taken to make up for the fluid loss (due to perspiration) of our body. Eg. Nimbu Pani, water, syrups, soft drinks, tonic water, etc.

Nourishing drink/ beverage: Beverage consumed to provide nutrients to the body. Ex. Milk-based products like a milkshake, chocolate drinks, juices, etc.


 

TEA

Tea is one of the most consumed non-alcoholic aromatic beverages. It is prepared from the leaf bud and top leaves of a tropical evergreen bush called Camellia Sinesis. It produces what is regarded as a healthy beverage containing approximately only half the caffeine of coffee and at the same time, it aids muscle relaxation and stimulates the central nervous system.


Origin

Tea was discovered by accident over 5000 years when leaves from a tea bush accidentally dropped into some boiling water and delicately flavored the drink. Tea was originally drunk for its medicinal benefits and it was not until the 1700’s that it began to be consumed as the delicious beverage that we know today.


Producing Countries

Tea is grown in more than 25 countries around the world. The crop benefits from acidic soil and warm climate and where there is at least 130cm of rain a year. It is an annual crop and its flavour, quality, and character are affected by the location, altitude, type of soil and the climate.


The main tea producing countries are:

• India: It is the largest producer

• China

• Sri Lanka

• East Africa (Kenya, Zimbabwe, Tanzania)

• Indonesia


Blend

The word blend indicates that a named tea in the market is up for sale may be composed for a variety of tea to produce one marketable product acceptable to the average consumer’s palate, for eg. a standard tea may be a blend of Indian Tea for strength, African tea for colour and Chinese tea for flavour and delicacy.


Storage

Tea should be stored in the following manner

• In a dry, cleaned and covered container

• In a well-ventilated area

• Away from excess moisture

• Must not be kept near any strong-smelling food as tea absorbs odour very quickly


Making of Tea

Tea is an infusion and thus maximum flavour is required from the brew. Few rules to be followed are -

• Ensure all equipment used are clean

• Heat the teapot before putting in the dry tea so that the maximum heat can be obtained from the brew

• Measure the dry tea and freshly drawn cold water exactly

• Use freshly boiled water

• Make sure that the water is boiling on entering the pot

• Allow it to brew for 3-4 minutes, to obtain maximum strength from the brew

• Remove the tea leaves at the end of this period if making in multi-pot insulated urns


Different Types of Tea and Their Style of Service

Indian or Ceylon blend: It can be made in either china or metal teapots. Usually, both are offered with milk. Sugar would be offered separately.

China: This is made from a special blend of tea which is more delicate in flavor and perfume than any other tea but lacks body. Less dry tea is required than for making Indian or Ceylon tea. It is made in the normal way and is best made in a china teapot. The addition of a slice of lemon improves flavor. Generally, china tea should not be served with milk but sugar may be offered.

Russian or lemon blend: This may be brewed from a similar blend to china tea, but more often it is made from Indian or Ceylon tea. It is made in a normal way and served with a slice of lemon.

Iced Tea: Make a strong tea and chill it well. This tea may be strained and stored chill till required.

Multi Pots: On occasions like reception, tea breaks, etc tea is made well in advance.


Specialty Tea

Assam Tea: It is rich and has a full malty flavour. Suitable for service at breakfast and is served with milk

Darjeeling Tea: A delicate tea with grape flavour and known as the Champagne of teas. Usually served as an afternoon or evening tea with either lemon or little milk if preferred.

Earl Grey Tea: A blend of Darjeeling and china tea, flavoured with oil of bergamot. Usually served with lemon or milk.

Jasmine: A green tea that is dried with jasmine. It blossoms and produces a tea that has a scented flavour.

Kenya tea: This tea is referred to as” refreshing tea”. It is served with milk.

Lapsangsauchang: It is smoky, pungent, perfumed tea. It is delicate to the palate and is said to have acquired taste and is served with lemon.

Tisanes: It is a fruit-flavoured tea and has herbal infusions. It is used for medicinal purposes and is gaining popularity since the trend is towards healthy eating and drinking. Often these so not contain caffeine.

Sri Lanka makes a pale golden tea with good flavour. Ceylon blend is still used as a trading name, served with lemon and milk.

CTC: Machinery processed tea, usually from Assam, Sri Lanka and parts of Africa and South America. The processing has three stages (crush, tear, curl or cut, tear, curl), hence the name “CTC” tea. The resultant product looks like small pellets of (usually black) tea. It produces a very strongly flavoured, quickly infusing tea that is often used in teabags.


Tea Brands:

• Lipton

• Tetley (Tata Global Beverages)

• Twinings (Associated British Foods)

• Dilmah

• Madame Flavour

• T2

• Brooke Bond


 

COFFEE


Coffee is naturally grown in many countries of the tropical and subtropical belt in South and Central America and Asia. It grows in different altitudes in different climates and different soil and is looked upon as an international drink consumed throughout the world. Brazil, Columbia, The Ivory Coast, and Indonesia are the first, second, third and fourth, largest producers of coffee in the world respectively. The coffee plants are the genus Coffea which belongs to the Rubiaceae family. The coffee plant is an evergreen plant or a bush which is grown commercially in tropical climate throughout the world. It requires not only a hot climate but also a high rainfall, rich soil and a relatively high altitude. The coffee plant is unable to survive a wide variation of temperature or any other condition.


History of coffee

There is evidence to suggest that coffee trees were cultivated about 1000 years ago in Yemen. The first commercial cultivation of coffee is thought to have been the Yemen district of Arabia in the 15th century. The first coffee house was opened in England in Oxford in 1650.

Three types of coffee plants are commercially used:

1. Coffea Arabica

2. Coffea Canephora

3. Coffea Liberica


Coffee Production

It involves several steps as Processing, Milling, Roasting and more.


Processing

Processing can be done by three different methods/process i.e Wet Process, Dry Process, Semi-Dry Process.

Milling

Milling includes Hulling, Polishing, Cleaning & Sorting, Grading.

Other Steps

Aging and Decaffeination are the two other steps done after Grading.

Storage

Green coffee may be usable for several years, but it is vulnerable to quality degradation which depends on how it is stored. Coffee that is poorly stored may develop a burlap-like taste known as “bagginess”, and its positive qualities may fade. A gas barrier liner to jute bags is sometimes used to preserve the quality of green coffee. Less frequently, green coffee is stored in vacuum packaging.

Roasting

Roasting and grinding are basically not part of production but almost all coffee sold to consumers throughout the world is sold as roasted coffee. Usually, there are four degrees of roasting Coffee: light, medium, medium-dark, and dark.

Grinding

Roasted coffee must be ground before it can be used to make the brew. Coffee is grounded to different grades of fineness which suit the many different methods of brewing. The most suitable grinds for some common methods of brewing coffee are -

Method

Grounding Grade

Filter

Fine to medium

Jug

Coarse

Turkish

Pulverized

Cafeteria

Medium

Vacuum Infusion

Medium fine to fine

Espresso

Very fine

Percolation

Medium

Types Of Coffee

Instant Coffee: It is a beverage derived from brewed coffee beans. Through various manufacturing processes, the coffee is dehydrated into the form of powder or granules. These can be re-hydrated with hot water or milk along with cream and sugar.


Filter Coffee: Drip brew, or filter coffee, is a method for brewing coffee which involves pouring water over roasted, ground coffee beans contained in a filter. Water seeps through the coffee, absorbing its oils and essences, solely under gravity, and then passes through the bottom of the filter. The used coffee grounds are retained in the filter with the liquid falling (dripping) into a collecting vessel such as a carafe or pot. Ex. Indian filter coffee


Decaffeinated Coffee/ Decaf: Coffee contains caffeine which is a stimulant. Decaffeinated coffee is made from beans after the caffeine has been extracted and contains about 1-2% of caffeine.


Espresso: It is a concentrated coffee beverage brewed by forcing hot water under pressure through finely-ground coffee. Served without milk.


Café Au Lait: This is the simple milk coffee where brewed coffee is added to milk in the ratio of 1:1 making it much less intense in taste.


Cappuccino: Usually equal parts espresso, steamed milk, and frothed milk, often with cinnamon or flaked chocolate sprinkled on top.


Café Latte: Essentially, a single shot of espresso in steamed (not frothed) milk. The ratio of milk to coffee should be about 3:1


Turkish Coffee: Turkish Coffee is coffee prepared by boiling finely powdered roast coffee beans in a pot, possibly with sugar, and serving it into a cup, where the dregs settle. The name describes the method of preparation, not the raw material; there is no special Turkish variety of the coffee bean.


Irish Coffee: It is a cocktail consisting of hot coffee, Irish whiskey, and sugar, stirred and topped with thick cream. The coffee is drunk through the cream.


 

Juices and Soft Drinks

A soft drink is a drink that typically contains carbonated water (although some lemonades are not carbonated), a sweetener, and a natural or artificial flavouring. The sweetener may be sugar, highfructose corn syrup, fruit juice, sugar substitutes (in the case of diet drinks), or some combination of these. Soft drinks may also contain caffeine, colourings, preservatives, and other ingredients.


Soft drinks are called “soft” in contrast with “hard” alcoholic drinks. Small amounts of alcohol may be present in a soft drink, but the alcohol content must be less than 0.5% of the total volume if the drink is to be considered non-alcoholic. Fruit punch, tea, and other such non-alcoholic drinks are technically soft drinks by this definition but are not generally referred to as such.


Soft drinks may be served chilled, over ice cubes or at room temperature. They are available in many formats, including cans, glass bottles, and plastic bottles (the latter in a variety of sizes ranging from small bottles to large 2-liter containers). Soft drinks are also widely available at fast-food restaurants, movie theaters, convenience stores, casual dining restaurants, dedicated soda stores, and bars from soda fountain machines. Soda fountain drinks are typically served in paper or plastic disposable cups in the first three venues. In casual dining restaurants and bars, soft drinks are often served in glasses. Soft drinks may be drunk with straws or sipped directly from the cups.


Soft drinks are mixed with other ingredients in several contexts. In Western countries, in bars and other places where alcohol is served (e.g., airplanes, restaurants, and nightclubs) many mixed drinks are made by blending a soft drink with hard liquor and serving the drink over ice. One well-known example is the rum and coke, which may also contain lime juice. Some homemade fruit punch recipes, which may or may not contain alcohol, contain a mixture of various fruit juices and soda pop (e.g., ginger ale). At ice cream parlours and 1950s-themed diners, ice cream floats are often sold.


 

Cocoa & Malted Beverages

Cocoa is found in powdered, liquid and butter form made from drying, roasting and fermenting Theobroma cacao seeds.


History & Climate

Cocoa beans were discovered in South American rain forests about thousands of years ago. being a favourable environment, humid and tropical climate mixed with elevated rainfall in South American rain forests ensures the growth of cacao fruits.


Processing

Steps involved in the formation of cocoa products:

• Harvesting

• Fermentation

• Cleaning

• Roasting

• Winnowing

• Grinding

• Conching

• Molding

• Formation of different cocoa products


After harvesting, the cacao fruits are opened and the seeds are extracted and fermented. After fermentation cleaning has to be done by various methods and then the fermented beans are to be dried and roasted. After roasting comes winnowing, in which machines crack the shells and then separate them from the heavier nibs. The roasted and winnowed beans are then broken down by grinding and cocoa mass or cocoa liquor formed which contains 53-58% cocoa butter which is conched by the process of conching to enhance flavor and emulsify at a temperature range from 55-88°C. The cocoa butter/liquor is then pressed (molding) to finally produce cocoa powder and cocoa butter.


Uses

Cocoa powder is the most commonly used powder in beverages like hot chocolate, cold coffee, etc. Beyond beverages, it is used as an ideal flavouring agent in products such as ice cream, bread spreads, dairy products, biscuits, cakes, and sweets. It adds colour as well as flavour.


Cocoa butter is a pale-yellow fat composed of particular fatty acids (around 36% monounsaturated). It is one of the most stable fats because it contains natural antioxidants (eg vitamin E) that reduce rancidity and allow for a storage life of 2 – 5 years. Furthermore, it has a mild chocolaty flavor and aroma, so it is an important ingredient in chocolate. Outside the food sector, cocoa butter is used in cosmetic products, such as lotions, lip balms, shampoos, soaps, as well as pharmaceuticals.


Nutrition facts of cocoa

Alexander von Humboldt once stated about cocoa: “nowhere else has nature compressed such a store of the most valuable nutrients into such a small space as it has with the cocoa bean.”


Amount Per 100 grams

Calories: 228

Total Fat: 14 g

Saturated fat: 8 g

Polyunsaturated fat: 0.4 g

Monounsaturated fat: 4.6 g

Cholesterol: 0 mg

Sodium: 21 mg

Potassium: 1,524 mg

Total Carbohydrate: 58 g

Dietary fiber: 33 g

Sugar: 1.8 g

Protein: 20 g

Caffeine: 230 mg

Calcium: 12%

Iron: 77%

Vitamin D: 0%

Vitamin B-6 5%

Magnesium 124%


Hot cocoa or hot chocolate?

Some people use the terms hot chocolate and hot cocoa synonymously but, more accurately, they are two different beverages. Hot cocoa is made from a mix of cocoa powder (sometimes in instant form), sugar and milk or water. By contrast, hot chocolate is made directly from chocolate bars (dark, semisweet or bittersweet chocolate), which already contain cocoa, sugar and cocoa butter. Thus, the major difference between the two is the cocoa butter, which makes hot cocoa lower in fat than hot chocolate.


Malt

It is germinated cereal (barley or other grains) that have been dried in a process known as “malting”. The grains are made to germinate by soaking in water and are then dried. Malting grains modifies the starches in the grains into sugars breaks down the proteins in the grain that can be used by yeast. These malted cereals are then used to manufacture a whole range of things like malted milk drinks like MILO, breakfast cereals, cereal bars, etc.


Malta

Malta is a lightly carbonated malt beverage, brewed from barley, hops, and water much like beer; corn and caramel color may also be added. However, Malta is non-alcoholic, it has a strong beer smell and flavor and is consumed in the same way as beer and soda or cola in its original carbonated form, and to some extent, iced tea in noncarbonated form. Malted milk is a powdered gruel made from a mixture of malted barley, wheat flour, and evaporated whole milk.


Ovaltine

Ovaltine (Ovomaltine) is a brand of milk flavouring products made with malt extract, sugar (except in Switzerland), and whey. Some flavours also have cocoa. Ovaltine, a registered trademark of Associated British Foods, is made by Wander AG, a subsidiary of Twinings which acquired the brand from Novartis in 2002, except in the United States where Nestlé acquired the rights separately from Novartis later on.


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