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Food Production | Solved Paper | 2016-17 | 1st Sem B.Sc HHA

Topic Wise Notes: Food Production

Please note: The answers provided below, are just for reference. Always consult your college professor if you have any queries.


Q.1. Explain the following terms:

(a) Roux

Flour and fat cooked together and used to thicken sauces. Roux is typically made from equal parts of flour and fat by weight. The flour is added to the melted fat or oil on the stove top, blended until smooth, and cooked to the desired level of brownness.

(b) Cloute

Studded, e.g. clove, bay leaf in an onion.

(c) Consommé

Clear soup made from minced meat, aromatic vegetables, hers and stock, etc. It is clarified with egg white.

(d) Liaison

Cream and eggs, blood, flour are used as thickening agents for soups and sauces.

(e) Florentine

a dish served on a bed of spinach.

(f) Chalazae

The chalaza is a structure inside bird and reptile eggs and plant ovules. It attaches or suspends the yolk or nucellus within the larger structure.

(g) Carotene

an orange or red plant pigment found in carrots and many other plant structures.

(h) Garnish

a small amount of food used to decorate other food.

(i) Mirepoix

Carrots, onions, celery, pork (salted optional) cut into fine dices, with thyme, bay leaf. Improves the flavour of the dish

(j) Fond de Cuisine

the foundation of cooking, stock in french cuisine


Q.2. Write short notes on (any two):

(a) Co-operation between kitchen and other departments

i. Food and Beverage Service

It is a most common sight to see the kitchen staff arguing with service people and vice versa. The age old animosity between the two departments results from the fact that both do not appreciate each other’s job. However, in spite of such differences, they are completely interdependent and cannot do without each other.

The kitchen depends on the service for the following things:

1. Service operates sales in various outlets. It takes the food order and serves it to the guest.

2. Service acts as a bridge between the guest and the chef and helps to communicate the requests and opinions of the food by providing constant feedback.

3. For cooking, wines and liquors are required from F&B on daily basis.

4. Service sells the food and markets the chef’s specialty, thereby bringing in more sales and happy customers.

ii. Housekeeping:

Following are some important points related to the coordination between the kitchen and housekeeping.

1. Kitchen requires clean uniforms, aprons, and dusters on daily basis, which are provided by housekeeping.

2. Kitchen also needs to coordinate with housekeeping regarding the pest control and fumigation in the kitchen.

3. Special uniforms if required for particular functions or theme parties are obtained from housekeeping.

4. Festive decorations if required in the restaurants or outlets, is again taken care of by housekeeping.

iii. Front Office:

Following are the important points related to the coordination between the kitchen and the front office.

1. Front office communicates the daily arrival list to the kitchen and it helps the chefs to forecast their production so that the wastage is minimized. The daily arrival list also contains guest history and the chefs come to know if there was any problem with food or service during the guest’s previous stay. Hence, they could make it up this time by exceeding his/her expectation.

2. The front office circulates VIP lists in the kitchens for any special requests of guests and for the room amenities to be placed in the room.

3. Sometimes welcome drinks are prepared by the kitchen for some VIPs.

4. Front office also assists guests in making their dining choices and helps in marketing the restaurants and outlets.

iv. Purchase and Stores:

Following are the important points related to the coordination between the kitchen and the purchase and stores department.

1. This department procures raw materials at the best possible prices, not compromising on the quality of ingredients.

2. Chefs help the purchase department to create the standard purchase specifications for commodities.

3. Chefs must give sufficient time for the orders to be procured and so maintaining of par stock levels are decided by the chefs and the purchase managers depending upon the frequency of withdrawals and availability from the market.

4. Chefs also receive the goods at receiving bay, thereby ensuring that the right quality of ingredients as per the standards specified is purchased.

v. Finance:

Following are the important points related to the coordination between the kitchen and the finance department.

1. Finance does the costing of the recipe and this helps the management to decide upon the selling price to get the desirable profits and maintain the agreed food cost.

2. Finance helps chefs and the purchase managers to go for regular market surveys and see if any new and better quality products are available.

3. Finance helps chefs to keep a check on their expenses by giving a periodic report mentioning their profits and losses.

vi. Sales and Marketing:

Following are the important points related to the coordination between the kitchen and sales and marketing.

1. This department helps the chefs to promote new menus and festivals.

2. Sales department promotes the chefs so as to increase the sales of their product.

3. Banquet sales works in close coordination with the kitchen to sell the menus and bring in more business. The banquet sales, however, form a part of F&B service rather than direct sales and marketing.

4. Sales people entertain VIP guests to bring in the business.

5. Sales department coordinates with the kitchens in times of festivals for providing hampers and gifts to VIPs.

vii. Engineering:

Following are the important points related to the coordination between the kitchen and the engineering department.

1. Engineering department does the preventive and breakdown maintenance of the machinery used in the kitchen (refer to Fig. 2.10).

2. Helps in installation of new machinery and equipment and trains the staff in its usage and precautions.

3. Coordinates with chefs to utilize the resources effectively to minimize costs and increase profits.

4. Maintenance schedules are made and followed up by chefs.

5. Fire fighting and safety procedures are laid down by the engineering and followed up by the chef.

viii. Human Resources and Training:

Following are the important points related to the coordination between the human resources (HR) and training department.

1. HR department helps chefs to find the skilled people and facilitate recruitments by helping chefs to take interviews and trade tests

2. Chefs highlight the training and development required by their staff and communicates it to the training department, who then prepares the training calendars and train people accordingly.

3. Appraisals and career developing of the kitchen people is Raised with the HR department.

4. Joining formalities of the new staff, induction, orientation, locker facilities etc. are dealt by HR department.

ix. Security:

Following are the important points related to the coordination between the kitchen and the security department.

1. Items taken out of the hotel are taken on a ‘gate pass’. This can be returnable or non- returnable. It is made in triplicate and one copy is retained in the book, one goes to finance department and the other one goes to security department.

2. Any fire in the kitchen is immediately reported to security.

3. Keys of certain areas are deposited in the security and only authorized personnel can withdraw the same

4. Sometimes store room needs to be opened in case of exigencies. In such a case, the normal procedure is to inform duty manager who will inform security and together with chef the stores shall be opened in front of security supervisor and duty manager and locked duly after the commodity is withdrawn against a store room requisition.

5. Employees swipe the cards when they come for work and go off duty. This is done at the staff entry point of the hotel, which is also known as ‘time office’. The swiping helps the HR department to compute their salaries. However, when the machine is faulty or the employee has forgotten to swipe the card or any other reason the following format is duly filled up to avoid deductions in salary.

(b) Types of Sugar

Sugar is available in many different forms. Some various forms of sugar are white sugar, caster sugar, granulated sugar, icing sugar, decorating sugar, vanilla sugar, cube sugar, jam sugar, jelly sugar, granulated brown sugar, soft brown sugar, demerara sugar, muscovado sugar, sugar syrup.

White Sugar Refining raw sugar obtained from sugar cane or sugar beet, removing all impurities, makes white sugar.

Caster Sugar Caster sugar is white, granulated sugar with very fine sugar crystals. It is also called superfine sugar, ultra-fine sugar or bar sugar. It is best used in baking and desserts, in the making of cakes, mousses, and drinks, as well as in foods and pastries that are sprinkled, rolled or coated with sugar. Also known as Breakfast sugar. In dishes where sugar is to be whipped with eggs, cream, etc, it is best to use superfine sugar.

Granulated Sugar Regular granulated sugar has coarser crystals than caster or superfine sugar. It may be used in making preserves, jams, marmalades and sugar syrups. In making jams, marmalades, preserves, etc, superfine sugar can be replaced with coarser granulated sugar.

Icing Sugar Icing sugar, also known as confectioners’ sugar, is made of white sugar ground into a smooth, white powder and used in icings, confections, drinks, etc. There is usually an amount of starch mixed in icing sugar to prevent clumping. Also differently colored or flavored icing sugars can be found in the sale.

Decorating Sugar This white, large crystal sugar is unevenly shaped and used to sprinkle on top of sweet buns and other baked goods for garnish. It may also be called pearl, sanding, coarse or crystal sugar. There are also colored decorating sugars on sale.

Vanilla Sugar A rather good substitute for real vanilla, vanilla sugar is powdered or granulated white sugar flavored with real vanilla bean. Usually, there are little black dots of powdered vanilla bean or seeds visible in the sugar. Vanilla sugar is used instead of vanilla bean to give vanilla flavor to various sweet baked goods, desserts, whipped cream, and beverages. It is added to foods only in a small amount (usually 1 – 2 teaspoons per batch of batter, dough, etc).

Cube Sugar Also called lump sugar, sugar cubes are made by molding and drying moistened, hot granulated sugar. Coming in various forms and colors, lump sugar is mainly used to sweeten various hot drinks. In cooking, lump sugar and sugar cubes may be used instead of granulated sugar in recipes where sugar is melted, like syrups and caramel. Sugar cubes are also used in desserts like Crêpes Suzette, where they are rubbed against the zest of citrus fruit to absorb their essential oils, to flavor the dish. Lump sugar can be ground into granules or powdered using a mortar, a blender or a food processor.

Jam Sugar Jam sugar is a special gelling sugar used in making jams, marmalades, jellies, and other preserves, instead of regular white sugar. It consists of white, granulated sugar (about 98 %) added with natural fruit pectin (E440, gelling agent), citric acid (E330, antioxidant) and potassium sorbate (E202, preservative). When using jam sugar, the cooking time of various preserves is often reduced, thus better maintaining the flavors, colors, and vitamins of the fruits and berries used. Jam sugar cannot be used instead of regular sugar in baking or cooking, but only in making of jams, marmalades and fruit compotes or soups.

Jelly Sugar Jelly sugar is used to decorate desserts and pastries and to make a set, clear dessert jellies. Jelly made with jelly sugar is spooned or brushed over berry and fruit garnishes to give them a thin and shiny, protective jelly coating. Jelly sugar is not suitable to be used in milk-based jellies and puddings or canning and preserving. Jelly sugar consists of white, granulated sugar, glucose syrup, natural fruit pectin (E440, gelling agent) and citric acid (E330, antioxidant).

Granulated brown sugar Regular granulated brown sugar is made by coating white sugar with a layer of dark molasses. It has loose, non-sticky sugar crystals with the color ranging from light to dark brown. This type of brown sugar has a light, clean molasses flavor and coarser texture than white, superfine sugar. Granulated brown sugar can be replaced for example with demerara sugar.

Soft Brown Sugar Soft brown sugar is made by coating white sugar with a layer of dark molasses. It is firmly packed, moist and slightly sticky, and has a stronger molasses flavor than brown, loose sugar. Soft brown sugar should be stored wrapped airtight to prevent it from drying and hardening into a clump.

Demerara Sugar Named after the Demerara area of Guyana, the coarse-grained demerara sugar is brown, partially refined raw sugar-containing some residual impurities. The color of demerara sugar varies from golden brown (e.g. turbinado sugar) to dark brown, with a strong dark molasses flavor. Demerara sugar can be used to sweeten and flavor various hot beverages, and it is used in fruit and berry desserts or in making candies and toffees. Depending on its color, texture, and depth of flavor, it can be used to replace granulated or soft brown sugar in many sweet and savory dishes. Turbinado sugar is a further refined type of demerara sugar with a pale color and a mild flavor.

Muscovado Sugar Muscovado sugar is the darkest of the partially refined brown raw sugars. It has slightly sticky crystals, with the color varying from light to dark brown. Muscovado sugar can be used to flavor tea, coffee, and other beverages. It brings a deep and dusky flavor of molasses into various dishes and desserts. Light muscovado sugar can be used to replace soft brown sugar in cooking and baking.

Sugar Syrups Heating a measured quantity of sugar and water to boiling to dissolve the sugar and then boiling very briefly until the syrup is clear makes simple sugar syrups. Cooked sugar syrups differ from simple syrups in that they are left to boil until the water evaporates and the sugar cooks to a higher temperature. (The quantity of water used to make a cooked sugar is not crucial because it will be completely boiled off; you need use only enough to dissolve the sugar and in fact, some professionals do without the water entirely). Cooked sugars are categorized by different stages of cooking, from the softball stage at a temperature of about 240ÚF, through a hard bill, light crack, hard crack and finally to caramel, which measures well over 300ÚF, depending on the darkness of the color

(c) Uniform and protective clothing required in the kitchen

Toque/Headwear • Keeps the head cool and prevents the hair from falling into the food. • Cotton/cloth caps are difficult to maintain whereas, paper caps are disposable hence they are neat. • The number of pleats on the chef cap indicates the number of ways in which an egg can be prepared.

Scarf/Neckerchief • Absorbs sweat. • Identification/designation.

Double-breasted jacket • Protects the chest and front. • Easy to remove overhead or sideways. • Cotton cloth buttons – heat resistant.

Apron • Below knee level. • Double protection prevents the jacket & trousers from becoming dirty.

Cotton checked trousers

• Double shade hides the dirt. • Identifies designation.

Shoes • Clogs can be used but it is expensive • The frame in front protects the toes. • Easy to remove legs.

Socks • Absorbs sweat. • Provides good grip. • Steady steps while walking


Q.3. (a) List the duties and responsibilities of the Executive Chef.

  • Plan and direct food preparation and culinary activities

  • Modify menus or create new ones that meet quality standards

  • Estimate food requirements and food/labor costs

  • Supervise kitchen staff’s activities

  • Arrange for equipment purchases and repairs

  • Recruit and manage kitchen staff

  • Rectify arising problems or complaints

  • Give prepared plates the “final touch”

  • Perform administrative duties

  • Comply with nutrition and sanitation regulations and safety standards

  • Keep time and payroll records

  • Maintain a positive and professional approach with coworkers and customers

(b) Draw the modern staffing of the Food Production Department of a large hotel.


Q.4. Name the Mother Sauces. Write the recipe of 1 ltr. of Béchamel sauce.

In the culinary arts, the term “mother sauce” refers to any one of six basic sauces, which are the starting points for making various secondary sauces or “small sauces.” They’re called mother sauces because each one is like the head of its own unique family.

The six basic mother sauces are:

  • bachamel sauce

  • veloute sauce

  • espagnole sauce

  • tomato sauce

  • hollandaise sauce

  • mayonnaise

Recipe of 1 ltr. of Béchamel sauce.

Ingredients For 1 Liter

100 grams of butter 100 grams of flour 1 liter of whole milk Grated nutmeg 1 pinch of salt


Heat the milk into a pan so that it does not reach the boiling point. In another pan dissolve butter then turn off the flame and add the flour mixing continuously with a whip. Put on a very low flame and, always stirring, make it golden. Once the roux (flour + butter) is ready add the milk by mixing it with a whip so as to avoid the formation of lumps. Add a pinch of nutmeg and sprinkle slightly then let it thicken to a low flame for a total of 5-6 minutes for a medium-density sauce and up to 10 minutes for a very thick sauce.

OR Define and classify soups. Write the recipe of 1 ltr. of Consommé Brunoise.

Soup is a liquid dish, typically savoury and made by boiling meat, fish, or vegetables etc. in stock or water.

Recipe of 1 ltr. of Consommé Brunoise.


100 g lean shin of beef 125 ml water 1 small onion (50 g approx) 1 small carrot (25 g approx) 1 small stick of celery (25 g approx) 1.25 litres cold brown stock bouquet garni 1/4 tsp salt 4 white peppercorns white and crushed shell of 1 egg

method 1. Shred the beef finely, trimming off all the fat.

2. Soak the meat in the water for 15 minutes.

3. Prepare the vegetables.

4. Put the meat, water, and the rest of the ingredients into a deep saucepan, adding the egg white and shell last.

5. Heat slowly to simmering point, whisking all the time, until a froth rises to the surface.

6. Remove the whisk, cover, and simmer the consomme very gently for 1 1/2 – 2 hours.

7. Do not allow to boil or the froth will break up and cloud the consomme.

8. Strain slowly into a basin through muslin or a scalded jelly bag.

9. If necessary, strain the consomme again. Re heat, re season if required, and serve plain or with a garnish.


Q.5. What behaviour and attitude are required to work in the kitchen. List the hygiene standards expected from the kitchen staff.

A positive attitude towards the job is expected from the kitchen personnel as the job requires a lot of hard work and patience. To become a successful chef, zeal to learn, creative nature, and a strong sense of responsibility are desired. While working in the kitchen, a person is dealing with sharp tools, electric machines with blades, gas, fires which all are very dangerous if treated without carefulness, therefore a presence of mind is a must.

Following are the main causes of accidents in the kitchen-

Distraction:- Distraction in the kitchen can be caused by the other personnel working in the kitchen, mobile phones, and personal problems. It is advised while working in the kitchen mobile phones should not be kept or attended, must keep the mind free from the personal issues while at work, and should not participate in gossips/jokes/talks especially while dealing with sharp tools. Haste:- The guest is god, his satisfaction is a must but not at the cost of someone’s life/health. A given work must be finished on time for which a work plan or schedule can be made, mise-en-place can be done in advance to avoid the running situations in the kitchen which can cause an accident either by falling or by pushing someone or by harming oneself by the sharp tools. Failure to observe rules and regulations:- As new machines are getting the place in the kitchens to create new recipes and to ease the job of chefs but attention must be paid to rules and regulations to operate these machines as avoidance of the same could call for the major accidents. The guidelines must be pasted over the walls near to the machines to read the instructions before operations.

Do’s for Personal Hygiene

• Bath or shower daily. • Wear clean uniforms and aprons. • Keep hair neat and clean. Always wear a hat or hairnet. • Keep mustaches and beards trimmed and clean. Better yet, be cleanly shaven. • Wash hands and exposed parts of arms before work and as often as necessary during work, including: • After eating, drinking, or smoking. • After using the toilet. • After touching or handling anything that may be contaminated with bacteria. • Cover cough and sneezes and then wash hands. • Keep your hands away from your face, eyes, hair, and arms. • Cover cuts or sores with clean bandages. • Use spoons for a tasting, not your finger.

Don’ts for Personal Hygiene

• Do not work with food if you have any communicable disease or infection. • Keep fingernails clean and short. Do not wear nail polish. • Do not smoke or chew gum or tobacco while on duty. • Do not sit on worktables. • Avoid wearing jewelry in the kitchen. • Do not use kitchen sinks for personal washing or for spitting.


Q.6. Define stocks. Write the recipe of 1 ltr. of White Chicken/Veg. stock

Stock can be simply defined as a liquid which has been simmered for a long time in order to extract flavours from the ingredients used. Any type of liquid can be used to start a stock. In almost all the cases, water is the liquid medium used, but then certain stocks can be made using a combination of milk and water as well. However, milk and various other liquid mediums are strictly regional. In classical Western cooking, water is the medium used to start a stock.

Stock is usually made from bones and vegetables. The types of bones used for a stock would depend upon the final usage of the stock. To prepare chicken stock one would use chicken bones only and similarly, to get lamb stock one has to use lamb bones and so on. However, in hotels, four major stocks such as chicken, lamb, beef, and fish are prepared.

Recipe of 1 ltr. of White Chicken/Veg. stock


  • 1kg chicken carcasses or wings

  • 1 carrot , cut into chunks

  • 1 onion , skin on, cut into quarters

  • 1 leek , cut into chunks

  • 1 stick of celery , cut into chunks

  • 1 garlic clove, bashed

  • bouquet garni of 2 parsley stalks, 2 sprigs of thyme and 1 bay leaf, tied with string

  • 5 peppercorns

  • 1 clove

Method Tip everything into a large saucepan with a pinch of salt then cover with 2 litres of water. Bring to the boil, then reduce to a simmer and cook for 3 hours, skimming when needed. Pass through a sieve and use for your intended recipe. Will keep in the fridge for a week and for three months in the freezer.


Q.7. What are pigments? Classify vegetables in detail.

There is a special group of molecular structures that gives colour to fruits and vegetables, these are pigments. Pigments are not only present in foods, but are also used to colour a lot of other products such as paint, clothes, etc. Pigments are good in absorbing a specific set of wavelengths and reflecting the remainder, thus making colour. They have this ability due to their chemical structures. The atoms are organized in such a way that they are good in absorbing these specific wave lengths.

Classification of Vegetables

  • Cabbage Family: Consist of vegetables used for their head, leaves, or flowers are also known as BRASSICA. E.g. Cabbage, Brussels Sprouts, Cauliflower, Kohlrabi, Broccoli etc

  • Stalk Vegetable: Stalk vegetables are plant stems that are high in cellulose. E.g. Asparagus, Celery, Bok Choy etc.

  • Leafy Vegetables: Leafy vegetables are plant grown specifically for their edible leaves. E.g. Spinach, Kale, Sorrel etc.

  • Salad Greens: Endive, Lettuce

  • Seeds, Edible Pods and Young Shoots: This is a broad category of vegetables it includes Peas, Snow peas, All types of beans, Bean sprout, Corn etc.

  • Vegetable Fruits: Botanically vegetable fruit are considered fruits; however they are used in the kitchen as vegetables. E.g. Cucumber, Okra, Eggplant, Tomatoes, Pepper, Squash etc.

  • Bulbs: Bulbs are stems holding A food reserve in the fleshy, overlapping which give shape to the vegetable. E.g. Onion, Scallion, Green onion, Shallots, Garlic etc.

  • Fungi: Mushrooms are not actually vegetables. They are an edible fungus. There are over 38,000 kinds of mushrooms. Three-quarters of these are edible. E.g. Mushroom, Morel, Truffles etc.

  • Tubers: These are formed from underground stems, which extend from the root of the plant. E.g. Jerusalem Artichoke, Carrot, Potatoes, Raddish, Turnips etc.

  • Spatiality Vegetables: There are vegetables that do not fit it any other category. E.g. Artichoke, Rhubarb etc.

OR Define salads. What are different parts of a salad? Discuss various types of salad dressing.

Salad is a cold dish of various mixtures of raw or cooked vegetables, usually seasoned with oil, vinegar, or other dressing and sometimes accompanied by meat, fish, or other ingredients.

Components of a salad

  1. Base or Underliner

  2. Body

  3. Garnish

  4. Dressing

1.Base or Under-liner: The base is a layer of leafy vegetables as an underliner of the salad such as Boston lettuce, Romaine, Iceberg, Radicchio, Endive, Red oak lettuce, Spinach, Arugula, Cabbage, etc.

2.Body: The most important part of the salads. The body of the salad is the main ingredient. It may include vegetables, fruits, meats, beans, eggs, pasta, or cheeses. The ingredients used have a balance of flavor and testes. This part gets the most attention and its appearance is enhanced by decorations. The salad gets its name from the ingredients that are used for the body.

3.Garnish: The garnish of the salad adds color and appeal, and sometimes flavor. It must be edible and may be as simple as a sprinkling of cheese crumbs, seeds, nuts, or spice. The main purpose of the garnish is to add an eye appeal to the finished product, but in some cases, it improves the taste and form.

4.Dressing: The dressing is a liquid or a semi-liquid used to flavor, moisten or enrich the salad. It adds flavor, provides food value, helps digestion and improves palatability and appearance.

In Western culture, there are two basic types of salad dressing:

  • Vinaigrettes based on a mixture (emulsion) of salad oil and vinegar, often flavored with herbs, spices, salt, pepper, sugar, and other ingredients.

  • Creamy dressings, usually based on mayonnaise or fermented milk products, such as yogurt, sour cream (crème fraîche, smetana), or buttermilk.


Q.8. What is cooking? With the help of a diagram, classify wet and dry methods of cooking. Discuss any two methods in detail.

At its most basic, cooking means applying heat to food. Whether the food is baked, fried, sautéed, boiled, or grilled, it’s all cooking. Evidence suggests our ancestors began cooking over an open fire over 2 million years ago. People still cook some foods over an open flame, in addition to using tools like microwaves, toasters, and stovetops. In scientific terms, cooking is transferring energy from a heat source to the food. It is as much about the ways ​heat changes the food as it is about the heat itself. That’s because heating food does more than just make it hotter.

Grilling This is a fast, dry and very hot way of cooking, where the food is placed under an intense radiant heat. You can use various sources of heat for grilling: wood burning, coals, gas flame, or electric heating. Before grilling, food can be marinaded or seasoned. A similar method to grilling is broiling, where the heat source originates from the top instead of the bottom.

Steaming This means cooking your food in water vapour over boiling water. For this, it’s handy to have a steamer, which consists of a vessel with a perforated bottom placed on top of another containing water. Steam rises as the water boils, cooking the food in the perforated vessel above.

OR What are the aims and objectives of cooking? Discuss the various techniques used in pre-preparation.

Aims and objectives of cooking

• The aim of cooking is to see that the food cooked undergoes a physical change, sometimes a chemical change and is acceptable. The object of cooking is to achieve certain results such as: • To facilitate and hasten digestion, so that the cooked food is absorbed by the digestive system and subsequently assimilated by the body. This is largely determined in the manner the food is cooked. • During the cooking process, it breaks down the cellulose in plant food, softens some of the connective tissues of meat, breaks down and gets starch released. The alteration is brought about in texture by physical and chemical changes thus assisting mastication. • A physical change occurs when a substance changes its form, colour or size, but still remains that same substance, like water that changes to ice. A chemical change occurs when changes its form, colour, size, combining so as to form an entirely new body, e.g. milk changes to curd.

Techniques used in pre-preparation:

Raw materials used in food production are mostly natural products. They are available in various shapes and weights. For example, no two potatoes or onions will be the same in size, shape, and weight. No two red pumpkins will be of the same size, shape, and weight. Preparing finished product calls for basic uniformity in size, shape, and weight. This is the base for uniformity in cooking and also the appearance of the food. Breaking down the raw materials into the required form is called ‘pre-preparation’. Following are a few pre-preparation techniques –

  • Washing – superficial dirt is removed during washing. Vegetables, fish, meat and sometimes even eggs are washed with cold water before any other process. These days this is done at the very entrance of the store to prevent any dirt and mud entering the store /kitchen/workplace. Water-soluble vitamins and minerals are lost if they are soaked for a long period of time or washed after cutting.

  • Peeling and scraping – spoilt, soiled and inedible portions are removed. Skins of potatoes, carrots, radish or fruits can be removed by peeling. Smaller ingredients like ginger, galangal are scraped. Peel off as little of the fleshy part as possible. If vegetables like carrots are washed well, their peels could be used for making stocks.

  • Paring – remove surface layers by using a circular motion as in paring an apple.

  • Cutting – reducing to smaller parts with a knife or a pair of scissors. When a chopping knife or a food chopper is used, it is termed as chopping.

    • Cutting into even size cubes - dicing.

    • Cutting into very fine pieces - mincing.

    • Cutting into slightly thicker, flat pieces - slicing.

    • Cutting into fine, long pieces - shredding.

    • Cutting into slightly thicker, flat pieces — slicing.

  • Grating – reducing to fine particles by rubbing over a rough, sharp surface.

  • Grinding – reducing to fine fragments by crushing in a mill, a grinding stone or an ostirizer.

  • Mashing – breaking up soft foods like cooked potatoes. {SMASHes are in boxing, NOT is food production}

  • Sieving – passing through a mesh to remove impurities or to break down into even parts or to enclose air.

  • Milling – used for cereals, to remove the husk.

  • Steeping – extracting coloring or/and flavoring by allowing ingredients to stand in water at a simmering temperature.

  • Centrifuging – Separate two parts of a substance by application of whirling force like separation of cream from milk.

  • Emulsification – Blending or mixing to non-mixable (insoluble) liquids by application of force.

  • Evaporation / Reduction – removal of moisture by heating.

  • Homogenization – a subdivision of large drops into smaller ones by forcing them through a small opening under great pressure.


Q.9. What are thickening agents? Write in detail about the different types of thickening agents used in sauces.

Thickening agents give body, consistency, and palatability when used. They also improve the nutritive value of the sauce. Flavored liquids are thickened and converted into soups, sauces, gravies, and curries, etc. In other words, binding agents are used to transforming the stocks into sauces.

There are various types of thickening agents, which are used in modern-day cookery. They are as follows:

Starches Flour Roux Beurre Manie Fruit and Vegetable Puree Egg yolk Cream Butter Blood

These are different ingredients added to give the thick consistency to a sauce. The different agents make each sauce unique by way of its taste, color, consistency & flavor.

Roux It is a fat and flour mixture, which are cooked together. It is cooked to various degrees, namely white, blond or brown. Equal quantities of flour and butter and margarine are taken to prepare the different colored roux. The colour acquired depends upon the degree of cooking of the flour and the color of the sauce depends upon the liquid and roux used. While preparing the sauce, the boiling liquid should never be added to a hot roux as it may become lumpy, a cold liquid to a hot roux or hot liquid to an old roux may be added to get a smooth texture.

Starch Arrowroot, corn flour, fecule (potato starch), tapioca are used to thicken the sauce. A paste should be made of cold liquid and starch and then stirred into boiling liquid and allowed to boil, till the starch is cooked. It gelatinizes at 93°C. Starch contains no gluten and gives a clear sauce and thickens more as it cools.

Beurre Maine It is chiefly used for fish sauces. Equal quantities of flour and butter are kneaded, and very little quantity is added at a time to the boiling liquid and stirred well to form a smooth consistency.

Yolks of Eggs and Cream It is a liaison, added as a finishing agent at the end of cooking. The product is never boiled when the liaison is added, or it would curdle. The liaison is added to thicken delicate cream or veloute sauces or cream soups. Yolks of eggs are used to prepare the mayonnaise by emulsifying with oil.

Blood It is usually used for game cooking. It thickens the sauce and gives a particular flavor e.g. preparation of Jugged Hare. Sauces could be grouped as follows: • Basic sauces • Cold Basic Sauces • Butter Sauces • Other sauces (miscellaneous)


Q.10. Match the following:

(a) Carotene (i) Cauliflower

(b) Consommé (ii) Pork fat

(c) Lyonnaise (iii) Top heat

(d) Aubergine (iv) Fried egg

(e) Lard (v) Carrot

(f) Beurre (vi) Butter

(g) Broiling (vii) Clarified soup

(h) Pommes (viii) Brinjal

(i) Flavons (ix) Apple

(j) Sunny side up (x) Onion


(a) Carotene (i) Carrot

(b) Consommé (ii) clarified soup

(c) Lyonnaise (iii) onion

(d) Aubergine (iv) brinjal

(e) Lard (v) pork fat

(f) Beurre (vi) Butter

(g) Broiling (vii) top heat

(h) Pommes (viii) Brinjal

(i) Flavons (ix) Apple

(j) Sunny side up (x) fried egg


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