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Food Production | Solved Paper | 2015-16 | 1st Sem B.Sc HHA

Topic Wise Notes: Food Production

Please note: The answers provided below, are just for reference. Always consult your college professor if you have any queries.


Q.1. (a) What are the attributes of a good chef?

Attributes of a good chef

1. Organizational Skills As an executive chef, your job is about more than just cooking food. You have to lead an entire team of kitchen staff, budget for food, determine how much of each ingredient to buy each week, schedule shifts for employees and anticipate the busiest times of day in the kitchen. To handle all of this, you’ll need to be organized and take time to plan and schedule every day that you’re at work.

2. Willingness to Accept Criticism Even the best chefs still have something to learn. One of the marks of a truly great chef is the ability to accept criticism and adjust their cooking to meet the needs of the diner or the restaurant owner. Learn to accept the critique of others, and be ready to adjust your style if and when it is necessary.

3. Ability to Handle High Stress Environments Cooking in a commercial kitchen is an incredibly stressful job. The temperature is often high due to lots of open flames and steam, there are dozens of things going on at any one time and you still need to ensure that plates are going out perfectly and in a timely fashion. If you get overwhelmed easily and shrink back in stressful situations, then becoming a chef may not be your calling.

4. Curiosity and Desire to Learn More The world’s top chefs are not content to cook the same dishes over and over again. Instead, they are curious about new developments in the culinary world, unusual flavor combinations and ingredients they haven’t yet heard of. If you are constantly striving to learn more about cooking, then you might have what it takes to be a successful culinary professional.

5. Physical Stamina A typical chef may work long shifts spanning from the middle of the morning until late at night, and most of that time will be spent on their feet. Physically, working as a chef is a challenging career. If you want to become a chef, make sure you can handle the physical demands of a busy commercial kitchen.

6. Creativity Cooking is often considered to be a blend of science and art. You will need to learn cooking techniques and skills, yes, but to excel you’ll also have to have plenty of creativity. The best chefs are those with new ideas and the desire to take risks in the kitchen.

7. Attention to Detail A missing garnish, a steak cooked for a minute too long or a hair in the salad can all ruin an otherwise perfect meal, which is why chefs have to be incredibly attentive to detail. While training to become a chef, pay close attention to everything going on around you.

(b) List the importance of each item of a chef’s protective clothing.

Essential protective clothing

Toque/Headwear • Keeps the head cool and prevents the hair from falling into the food. • Cotton/cloth caps are difficult to maintain whereas, paper caps are disposable hence they are neat. • The number of pleats on the chef cap indicates the number of ways in which an egg can be prepared.

Scarf/Neckerchief • Absorbs sweat. • Identification/designation.

Double-breasted jacket • Protects the chest and front. • Easy to remove overhead or sideways. • Cotton cloth buttons – heat resistant.

Apron • Below knee level. • Double protection prevents the jacket & trousers from becoming dirty.

Cotton checked trousers.

• Double shade hides the dirt. • Identifies designation.

Shoes and Socks. • Clogs can be used but it is expensive • Metal frame in front protects the toes. • Easy to remove legs. • Socks • Absorbs sweat. • Provides good grip. • Steady steps while walking


Q.2. (a) Give the “Classical Brigade” as propounded by Chef Augustine Escoffier.

(b) State the duties and responsibilities of a Sous Chef of a 5-star hotel.

  • Leads kitchen team in chef’s absence

  • Provides guidance to junior kitchen staff members, including, but not limited, to line cooking, food preparation, and dish plating

  • Oversees and organizes kitchen stock and ingredients

  • Ensures a first-in, first-out food rotation system and verifies all food products are properly dated and organized for quality assurance

  • Keeps cooking stations stocked, especially before and during prime operation hours

  • Hires and trains new kitchen employees to restaurant and kitchen standards

  • Manages food and product ordering by keeping detailed records and minimises waste, plus works with existing systems to improve waste reduction and manage budgetary concerns

  • Supervises all food preparation and presentation to ensure quality and restaurant standards

  • Works with head chef to maintain kitchen organization, staff ability, and training opportunities

  • Verifies that food storage units all meet standards and are consistently well-managed

  • Assists head chef with menu creation

  • Coordinates with restaurant management team on supply ordering, budget, and kitchen efficiency and staffing


Q.3. (a) Highlight and briefly explain five classical cuts of vegetables.

  • Brunoise: vegetables are cut into fine dices.

  • Macedoine: vegetables are cut into ½ cm dices.

  • Julienne: vegetables are cut into very thin strips (1 ½ ˝ long).

  • Jardinière: vegetables are cut into baton shape (1˝ x ¼ ˝ x ¼ ˝).

  • Paysanne: vegetables are cut into small triangles, circles and squares- uniform shape.

  • Wedges: tomato or lemon cut into four or six pieces.

  • Mirepoix: vegetables mixed (onions, carrots, celery, leeks) cut into rough dices.

  • Chiffonade: Shredded leafy vegetables.

  • Matignon: Evenly cut root vegetables.

  • Chateau: Turning of vegetables into barrel shape.

(b) What is the effect of heat on vegetable pigments?

Green Chlorophyll pigments give plants their green color, and several changes happen when a green vegetable goes into boiling water. First, a brighter green color develops, caused by the expansion of gases and their escape from spaces between plant cells. The collapse of these rather cloudy pockets of gas reveals the bright-green chloroplasts within the cells. A second color change occurs in response to acidic water: The magnesium ion in the center of the chlorophyll molecule is replaced with a hydrogen atom, causing the green to dull. Chlorophyll-a becomes gray-green pheophytin-a, and chlorophyll-b turns into yellowish pheophytin-b. If the boiling water is slightly alkaline, then chlorophyll stays greener. Fried vegetables change to a duller green color when temperatures reach 140 degrees Fahrenheit. The heat damages chloroplasts, releasing natural cell acids to turn green into olive-green.

Red and Blue Reds, blues and purples occur because of a concentration of different kinds of anthocyanins, water-soluble pigments held in plant cell sap. Heating doesn’t change them, but they are red in acidic conditions and blue or purple in alkaline conditions. The color of fall leaves happens when the leaf chlorophyll dies. Intense reds and purples of anthocyanins, which are made up of anthocyanidins plus glucose molecules, form best in response to warm, sunny fall days with cool night temperatures that don’t fall below freezing. Those conditions lead to abundant sugar formation and better anthocyanin production. Leaves turn red when cell sap is acidic and purplish or blue when cell sap is alkaline. Vegetables and fruits with anthocyanins can change color completely in response to acidity or alkalinity. Under alkaline conditions, sometimes red cabbage leaves turn blue-purple when cooked, blueberry fruits become green in pancakes and garlic cloves turn green or blue when pickled.

Yellow and Orange Carotenoids are more soluble in fat than in water, and so their colors don’t fade much in response to heat. Some change occurs, however, with carrot taproots going from red-orange to more yellow when cooked. When colorful apricot and bright-red tomato fruits are sun-dried, they lose much of their brightness unless they are treated with the antioxidant sulfur dioxide. Carotenoids also have less-intense color under acidic conditions.

White White or colorless to begin with, anthoxanthins are water-soluble. They become white when in acidic environments and yellow when alkaline conditions prevail. They turn dark in excessive heat. If plant tissues with anthoxanthins are cooked in aluminum, tin or iron containers, their pigments can react with that metal’s ions and form colors such as gray, blue, red, green and brown.

OR (a) What are the different parts of a salad? Briefly state the role of each part.

Components of a salad

  1. Base or Underliner

  2. Body

  3. Garnish

  4. Dressing

1.Base or Under-liner: The base is a layer of leafy vegetables as an underliner of the salad such as Boston lettuce, Romaine, Iceberg, Radicchio, Endive, Red oak lettuce, Spinach, Arugula, Cabbage, etc.

2.Body: The most important part of the salads. The body of the salad is the main ingredient. It may include vegetables, fruits, meats, beans, eggs, pasta, or cheeses. The ingredients used have a balance of flavor and testes. This part gets the most attention and its appearance is enhanced by decorations. The salad gets its name from the ingredients that are used for the body.

3.Garnish: The garnish of the salad adds color and appeal, and sometimes flavor. It must be edible and may be as simple as a sprinkling of cheese crumbs, seeds, nuts, or spice. The main purpose of the garnish is to add an eye appeal to the finished product, but in some cases, it improves the taste and form.

4.Dressing: The dressing is a liquid or a semi-liquid used to flavor, moisten or enrich the salad. It adds flavor, provides food value, helps digestion and improves palatability and appearance.

(b) Give examples of five different types of salad dressings commonly used.

1. Vinaigrette


30ml white wine vinegar 30ml water 1 tablespoon of French mustard 200ml vegetable oil salt and pepper Whisk in a bowl the vinegar, water, mustard and salt and pepper. With a blender running, add the oil and process until well blended. Season to taste with salt and pepper. This classic dressing fits every salad.

2. Tomato dressing


15 sweet cherry tomatoes 150ml extra virgin olive oil 10 basil leaves 40ml red wine vinegar 1 shallot, finely chopped salt and pepper Heat the olive oil in a small saucepan and slowly cook the tomatoes. Simmer for five minutes. Leave to cool. Add the vinegar, basil and salt and pepper, mix the ingredients until well blended and then add the chopped shallot. Salt and pepper to taste. This dressing goes well with Mediterranean salads.

3. Soy dressing


150ml of sunflower oil 1 Clove garlic, finely chopped 1/3 red chili pepper, finely chopped (hot, mild or sweet to your liking) 2 Tablespoons sesame oil 100ml of light soy sauce 4 Spring onions, finely chopped Put the garlic, the chili and the oil in a small saucepan. Let simmer for two minutes and remove from heat. Allow to cool and mix with the rest of the ingredients. This dressing fits with several salads, but the best is with an Asian style salad.

4. Balsamic dressing


200ml extra virgin olive oil 100ml Balsamic vinegar 1 tablespoon of honey 1 teaspoon of mustard Salt and pepper Mix all the ingredients and bring to taste with salt and pepper. A good addition to Italian salads.

5. Mango lime dressing


1 mango 1 lime (juice and zest) 1 teaspoon of mustard 1 pinch of salt 1 teaspoon of rice vinegar 2 tablespoons of vegetable oil


Q.4. What are the various types of sugar used in cookery? List various stages of cooked sugar stating their temperatures

Types of sugar

Sugar is available in many different forms. Some various forms of sugar are white sugar, caster sugar, granulated sugar, icing sugar, decorating sugar, vanilla sugar, cube sugar, jam sugar, jelly sugar, granulated brown sugar, soft brown sugar, demerara sugar, muscovado sugar, sugar syrup.

White Sugar Refining raw sugar obtained from sugar cane or sugar beet, removing all impurities, makes white sugar.

Caster Sugar Caster sugar is white, granulated sugar with very fine sugar crystals. It is also called superfine sugar, ultra-fine sugar or bar sugar. It is best used in baking and desserts, in the making of cakes, mousses, and drinks, as well as in foods and pastries that are sprinkled, rolled or coated with sugar. Also known as Breakfast sugar. In dishes where sugar is to be whipped with eggs, cream, etc, it is best to use superfine sugar.

Granulated Sugar Regular granulated sugar has coarser crystals than caster or superfine sugar. It may be used in making preserves, jams, marmalades and sugar syrups. In making jams, marmalades, preserves, etc, superfine sugar can be replaced with coarser granulated sugar.

Icing Sugar Icing sugar, also known as confectioners’ sugar, is made of white sugar ground into a smooth, white powder and used in icings, confections, drinks, etc. There is usually an amount of starch mixed in icing sugar to prevent clumping. Also differently colored or flavored icing sugars can be found in the sale.

Decorating Sugar This white, large crystal sugar is unevenly shaped and used to sprinkle on top of sweet buns and other baked goods for garnish. It may also be called pearl, sanding, coarse or crystal sugar. There are also colored decorating sugars on sale.

Vanilla Sugar A rather good substitute for real vanilla, vanilla sugar is powdered or granulated white sugar flavored with real vanilla bean. Usually, there are little black dots of powdered vanilla bean or seeds visible in the sugar. Vanilla sugar is used instead of vanilla bean to give vanilla flavor to various sweet baked goods, desserts, whipped cream, and beverages. It is added to foods only in a small amount (usually 1 – 2 teaspoons per batch of batter, dough, etc).

Cube Sugar Also called lump sugar, sugar cubes are made by molding and drying moistened, hot granulated sugar. Coming in various forms and colors, lump sugar is mainly used to sweeten various hot drinks. In cooking, lump sugar and sugar cubes may be used instead of granulated sugar in recipes where sugar is melted, like syrups and caramel. Sugar cubes are also used in desserts like Crêpes Suzette, where they are rubbed against the zest of citrus fruit to absorb their essential oils, to flavor the dish. Lump sugar can be ground into granules or powdered using a mortar, a blender or a food processor.

Jam Sugar Jam sugar is a special gelling sugar used in making jams, marmalades, jellies, and other preserves, instead of regular white sugar. It consists of white, granulated sugar (about 98 %) added with natural fruit pectin (E440, gelling agent), citric acid (E330, antioxidant) and potassium sorbate (E202, preservative). When using jam sugar, the cooking time of various preserves is often reduced, thus better maintaining the flavors, colors, and vitamins of the fruits and berries used. Jam sugar cannot be used instead of regular sugar in baking or cooking, but only in making of jams, marmalades and fruit compotes or soups.

Jelly Sugar Jelly sugar is used to decorate desserts and pastries and to make a set, clear dessert jellies. Jelly made with jelly sugar is spooned or brushed over berry and fruit garnishes to give them a thin and shiny, protective jelly coating. Jelly sugar is not suitable to be used in milk-based jellies and puddings or canning and preserving. Jelly sugar consists of white, granulated sugar, glucose syrup, natural fruit pectin (E440, gelling agent) and citric acid (E330, antioxidant).

Granulated brown sugar Regular granulated brown sugar is made by coating white sugar with a layer of dark molasses. It has loose, non-sticky sugar crystals with the color ranging from light to dark brown. This type of brown sugar has a light, clean molasses flavor and coarser texture than white, superfine sugar. Granulated brown sugar can be replaced for example with demerara sugar.

Soft Brown Sugar Soft brown sugar is made by coating white sugar with a layer of dark molasses. It is firmly packed, moist and slightly sticky, and has a stronger molasses flavor than brown, loose sugar. Soft brown sugar should be stored wrapped airtight to prevent it from drying and hardening into a clump.

Demerara Sugar Named after the Demerara area of Guyana, the coarse-grained demerara sugar is brown, partially refined raw sugar-containing some residual impurities. The color of demerara sugar varies from golden brown (e.g. turbinado sugar) to dark brown, with a strong dark molasses flavor. Demerara sugar can be used to sweeten and flavor various hot beverages, and it is used in fruit and berry desserts or in making candies and toffees. Depending on its color, texture, and depth of flavor, it can be used to replace granulated or soft brown sugar in many sweet and savory dishes. Turbinado sugar is a further refined type of demerara sugar with a pale color and a mild flavor.

Muscovado Sugar Muscovado sugar is the darkest of the partially refined brown raw sugars. It has slightly sticky crystals, with the color varying from light to dark brown. Muscovado sugar can be used to flavor tea, coffee, and other beverages. It brings a deep and dusky flavor of molasses into various dishes and desserts. Light muscovado sugar can be used to replace soft brown sugar in cooking and baking.

Sugar Syrups Heating a measured quantity of sugar and water to boiling to dissolve the sugar and then boiling very briefly until the syrup is clear makes simple sugar syrups. Cooked sugar syrups differ from simple syrups in that they are left to boil until the water evaporates and the sugar cooks to a higher temperature. (The quantity of water used to make a cooked sugar is not crucial because it will be completely boiled off; you need use only enough to dissolve the sugar and in fact, some professionals do without the water entirely). Cooked sugars are categorized by different stages of cooking, from the softball stage at a temperature of about 240ÚF, through a hard bill, light crack, hard crack and finally to caramel, which measures well over 300ÚF, depending on the darkness of the color.

There are 7 stages of cooking sugar.

Thread: Cooked to 230° to 234°. The syrup spins a soft, loose, short thread.

Soft Ball: Cooked to 234° to 240°. The syrup forms a soft, pliable, sticky ball.

Firm Ball: Cooked to 244° to 248°. The syrup forms a firm, but still pliable, sticky ball.

Hard Ball: Cooked to 250° to 265°. The syrup forms a hard, sticky ball.

Soft Crack: Cooked to 270° to 290°. The syrup forms longer strands that are firm, but yet remain pliable.

Hard Crack: Cooked to 300° to 310°. The syrup forms stiff strands that are firm and brittle.

Caramel: Cooked to 320° to 338°. The syrup changes color, ranging from a light golden to a dark amber brown. It forms hard strands that are firm and brittle.


Q.5. Classify soups in a chart form giving atleast one example of each. List and briefly explain four consommé garnishes.

Examples of soups

Passed- consomme

Unpassed- broth- minestrone

Puree- carrot and sweet potato soup Veloute- broccoli cheese soup Cream- cream of tomato Bisque- chicken tomato bisque Chowder- potato chowder

Examples of consomme

Consommé Royal: Dice of savoury, egg custard. Consommé Julienne: Julienne cuts of vegetables. Consommé Brunnoise: Small dice cuts of veg. (2mm) Consommé Celestine: Julienne cuts of thin pan cake.


Q.6. Differentiate between: (a) Beurre Marie and Bain Marie

Bain Marie-A hot water bath in which utensils containing various culinary preparations are immersed to warm or for the purpose of poaching and reheating.

Beurre Marie: Equal quantities of flour and butter put in sauces, etc. for thickening.

(b) Estouffade and Espagnole

Estouffade: Brown stock.

Espagnole: Basic brown sauce.

(c) Boiling and Broiling

boiling: Boiling is the rapid vaporization of a liquid, which occurs when a liquid is heated to its boiling point, the temperature at which the vapour pressure of the liquid is equal to the pressure exerted on the liquid by the surrounding atmosphere.

broiling: Broiling, cooking by exposing food to direct radiant heat, either on a grill over live coals or below a gas burner or electric coil.

(d) Hollandaise and Mayonnaise

Hollandaise sauce formerly also called Dutch sauce, is an emulsion of egg yolk, melted butter, and lemon juice. It is usually seasoned with salt, and either white pepper or cayenne pepper.

mayonnaise: It is a mix of oil, egg yolk, and an acid, either vinegar or lemon juice; there are many variants using additional flavorings. The color of mayonnaise varies from near-white to pale yellow, and its texture from a light cream to a thick gel.

(e) Larding and Basting

larding: larding refers to a technique for threading strips of pork fat called lardoons into a roast of meat before cooking it.

basting: Basting is a cooking technique that involves cooking meat with either its own juices or some type of preparation such as a sauce or marinade. The meat is left to cook, then periodically coated with the juice.


Q.7. Explain (any two): (a) Aims and objectives of cooking

• The aim of cooking is to see that the food cooked undergoes a physical change, sometimes a chemical change and is acceptable. The object of cooking is to achieve certain results such as: • To facilitate and hasten digestion, so that the cooked food is absorbed by the digestive system and subsequently assimilated by the body. This is largely determined in the manner the food is cooked. • During the cooking process, it breaks down the cellulose in plant food, softens some of the connective tissues of meat, breaks down and gets starch released. The alteration is brought about in texture by physical and chemical changes thus assisting mastication. • A physical change occurs when a substance changes its form, colour or size, but still remains that same substance, like water that changes to ice. A chemical change occurs when changes its form, colour, size, combining so as to form an entirely new body, e.g. milk changes to curd.

(b) Rancidity in fats and oils

Rancidity, condition produced by aerial oxidation of unsaturated fat present in foods and other products, marked by unpleasant odour or flavour. When a fatty substance is exposed to air, its unsaturated components are converted into hydroperoxides, which break down into volatile aldehydes, esters, alcohols, ketones, and hydrocarbons, some of which have disagreeable odours. Butter becomes rancid by the foregoing process and by hydrolysis, which liberates volatile and malodorous acids, particularly butyric acid. Saturated fats such as beef tallow are resistant to oxidation and seldom become rancid at ordinary temperatures.

(c) Biological leavening/Raising agents

Biological Raising Agent

Yeast can be of two types:

- Fresh or compressed yeast - Dry yeast The scientific name of yeast is Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yeast is unicellular microscopic fungi.

The structure of yeast consist :

  • Cell wall

  • Protoplasm

  • Vacoale

  • Food

  • Simple sugar like dextrose or fructose.

Fermentation activity

The protoplasm of yeast contains the following enzymes:

  • Invertase It converts cane sugar or sucrose into a simpler form of sugar which is known as invert sugar, which is a combination of dextrose and fructose.

  • Maltase It converts maltose sugar into dextrose which can be directly fermented by yeast.

  • Zymase This is the most important fermenting agent which breaks invert sugar and dextrose to carbon dioxide, some amount of pure alcohol, and a very small amount of glycerine, acetic acid and some amount of lactic acid. It also produces some flavourful aroma which gives a pleasant fermentation flavor.

  • Protease It softens down the flour protein, thus gives a better stretchability for the bread (to be specific on gluten) so that it can get a good volume and structure.

Storage of yeast Stored at 45 degrees F. Yeast is killed by heat in a range of 127 degrees to 140 degrees F.

(d) Importance of kitchen uniform

Under food hygiene law, including the Food Safety Act 1990, anyone who works with food has a responsibility to ensure that the food they prepare is safe. While this does mean that food should be stored and prepared safely, it also means that you need to understand the importance of wearing a chef uniform in order to uphold the safety of food. In fact, there are three main reasons why chefs should wear uniform:

Food Hygiene Wearing the appropriate uniform is just one positive step you can take towards ensuring food safety. Chefs must wear the correct protective clothing in food areas at all times, as this will help to ensure that any contaminants carried on normal clothing, such as pet hairs or dirt, do not contaminate the food.

As well as wearing their whites, chefs must also wear the appropriate hair coverings whilst in food preparation areas. For example, wearing hats to cover hair and beard snoods to cover any facial hair will help to prevent hairs from falling into food. What’s more, when abiding by other uniform requirements, such as not wearing jewellery to work, you will help to prevent further contamination. For example, you will prevent any bacteria that may be caught in the crevices of jewellery, or any physical stones that may fall from the jewellery, from coming into contact with the food. In turn, this will lead to safer food and benefits including happier customers and a better business reputation.

Personal Comfort Multiple ovens, hobs, and other heating equipment undoubtedly make commercial kitchens hot environments. For chefs, the heat can become very uncomfortable, especially if they are working a long shift. Therefore, wearing the appropriate uniform is crucial for personal comfort. To be comfortable and remain cool, chefs should wear uniform that is the appropriate size for them and still has room to allow airflow and breathability. It should be made of a comfortable material and not irritate the skin during use. Chefs must tell somebody if their uniform is uncomfortable or ill-fitting, as this will affect their comfort, work ability, and performance in the long run.

Professionalism While chef uniform is important for the safety of food as well as staff comfort, it also has a purpose in terms of appearances. You may have an open kitchen in your restaurant where people can see their food being prepared, or it may be the case that the chefs at your establishment aren’t generally seen by the public. However, whichever one of these it is, there’s no doubt that chef uniform gives an appearance of professionalism. If a customer notices a chef wearing their own clothes, they may have questions about how safe the food is that they’re preparing.


Q.8. Highlight the different methods of cooking. Indicate two food items for each type of cooking method.

Baking This involves applying a dry convection heat to your food in an enclosed environment. The dry heat involved in the baking process makes the outside of the food go brown, and keeps the moisture locked in. Baking is regularly used for cooking pastries, bread and desserts.

Frying This means cooking your food in fat – there are several variations of frying: Deep-frying, where the food is completely immersed in hot oil Stir-frying, where you fry the food very quickly on a high heat in a oiled pan Pan-frying, where food is cooked in a frying pan with oil; and Sauteing, where the food is browned on one side and then the other with a small quantity of fat or oil. Frying is one of the quickest ways to cook food, with temperatures typically reaching between 175 – 225ºC.

Roasting Roasting is basically a high heat form of baking, where your food gets drier and browner on the outside by initial exposure to a temperature of over 500F. This prevents most of the moisture being cooked out of the food. The temperature is then lowered to between 425 and 450F to cook through the meat or vegetables.

Grilling This is a fast, dry and very hot way of cooking, where the food is placed under an intense radiant heat. You can use various sources of heat for grilling: wood burning, coals, gas flame, or electric heating. Before grilling, food can be marinaded or seasoned. A similar method to grilling is broiling, where the heat source originates from the top instead of the bottom.

Steaming This means cooking your food in water vapour over boiling water. For this, it’s handy to have a steamer, which consists of a vessel with a perforated bottom placed on top of another containing water. Steam rises as the water boils, cooking the food in the perforated vessel above.

Poaching This involves a small amount of hot liquid, ideally at a temperature between 160 and 180F. The cooking liquid is normally water, but you can also use broth, stock, milk or juice. Common foods cooked by poaching include fish, eggs and fruit.

Simmering This involves cooking liquid on top of a stove in a pot or pan. It should be carried out on a low heat, and you will see bubbles appearing on the surface of the liquid as your dish cooks.

Broiling Similar to grilling, the heat source comes directly from the top. You should be able to adjust your oven setting to broiling, but be careful, as this cooking methods works quickly and your meal could easily become burned. Favourite dishes for broiling include chicken, beef and fish.

Blanching Here the food is part-cooked, and then immediately submerged in ice cold water to stop the cooking process. All sorts of vegetables can be blanched, including green beans, asparagus and potatoes.

Braising First the food is sauted or seared, and then simmered in liquid for a long period of time until tender. Pot roasts, stews and casseroles can be cooked in this way if they contain larger food items such as poultry legs.

Stewing Again, the food is sauted or seared first, and then cooked in liquid, but normally uses smaller ingredients such as chopped meats or vegetables.

OR With the help of a labelled diagram, explain the structure and composition of an egg. List the uses of eggs in culinary preparations.

Structure of egg

Shell Bumpy and grainy in texture, an eggshell is covered with as many as 17,000 tiny pores. Eggshell is made almost entirely of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) crystals. It is a semi-permeable membrane, which means that air and moisture can pass through its pores. The shell also has a thin outermost coating called the bloom or cuticle that helps keep out bacteria and dust.

Inner and Outer Membranes Lying between the eggshell and egg white, these two transparent protein membranes provide efficient defense against bacterial invasion. If you tug at these layers, you’ll find they’re surprisingly strong. They’re made partly of keratin, a protein that’s also in human hair.

Air Cell An air space forms when the contents of the egg cool and contract after the egg is laid. The air cell usually rests between the outer and inner membranes at the egg’s larger end, and it accounts for the crater you often see at the end of a hard-cooked egg. The air cell grows larger as egg ages

Albumen The egg white is known as the albumen, which comes from albus, the Latin word for “white.” Four alternating layers of thick and thin albumen contain approximately 40 different proteins, the main components of the egg white in addition to water.

Chalazae Opaque ropes of egg white, the chalazae hold the yolk in the center of the egg. Like, little anchors, they attach the yolk’s casing to the membrane lining the eggshell. The more prominent they are, the fresher the egg.

Vitelline Membrane The clear casing that encloses the yolk.

Yolk The yolk contains less water and more protein than the white, some fat, and most of the vitamins and minerals of the egg. These include iron, vitamin A, vitamin D, phosphorus, calcium, thiamine, and riboflavin. The yolk is also a source of lecithin, an effective emulsifier. Yolk color ranges from just a hint of yellow to a magnificent deep orange, according to the feed and breed of the hen.

Uses Of Egg In Cookery

Binding Addition of eggs to minced mead and mashed vegetables etc. helps to bind the mixture. As the heat coagulates, the proteins are bound into a cohesive mass. It helps to retain the shape of mutton croquettes, meatloaf, medallions, hamburgers, etc.

Coating The egg and egg batter help to give a coat to the food items and prevent them from disintegrating and give them a protective coating. Many of the food items such as fish fillets, croquettes, etc. are dipped into the batter before crumbing and then fried. Eggs are also used for preparing pancake batters.

Leavening By beating the egg whites, foam is made up of air bubbles, surrounded by a thin elastic film of egg white. The mixture, when added to products such as sponge cakes, meringues, soufflés, etc., increases the volume and the egg white film hardens. The addition of sugar to egg white makes it stable, smooth, and the foam does not collapse easily. Egg yolk has a less foaming power because of its fat content. An egg is used as the principal ingredient for Chou paste from which éclairs, beignets, fritters, and profiteroles are made.

Emulsifying Eggs form stable emulsions. For example, mayonnaise, oil, and vinegar separate unless oil droplets are coated with a substance that keeps them from separating. Eggs are the emulsifiers that give a smooth mayonnaise sauce. It is also used as an emulsifier in ice creams, cakes, cream puffs. Eggs enhance color and shine.

Thickening Eggs help to improve the consistency of gravies, curries, sauces, and soups. Egg liaisons used in soups and sauces help to thicken and improve consistency. When used in custards, the heat coagulates the eggs and makes the custard firm.

Decoration and Garnishing of Dishes Silver, sieved or quarters of boiled eggs are used to decorate or garnish dishes such as salads, biryanis, curries, Vienna steaks, etc. For Consommé Xavier, threaded eggs are added as a garnish.

Clarifying Consommés are clarified with egg whites.


Q.9. Define stocks. Explain the elements of stock. What are the care and precautions to be taken during the preparation and storage of stocks?

Stock, is a savory cooking liquid that forms the basis of many dishes, particularly soups, stews and sauces. Making stock involves simmering animal bones or meat, seafood, or vegetables in water or wine, often for an extended period of time.

Components of a Stock

  • Bones: Beef and chicken bones are most commonly used; fish is also common. The flavor of the stock comes from the bone marrow, cartilage and other connective tissue. Connective tissue contains collagen, which is converted into gelatin that thickens the liquid. Stock made from bones needs to be simmered for long periods; pressure cooking methods shorten the time necessary to extract the flavor from the bones.

  • Meat: Cooked meat still attached to bones is also used as an ingredient, especially with chicken stock. Meat cuts with a large amount of connective tissue, such as shoulder cuts, are also used.

  • Mirepoix: Mirepoix is a combination of onions, carrots, celery, and sometimes other vegetables added to flavor the stock. Sometimes, the less desirable parts of the vegetables that may not otherwise be eaten (such as carrot skins and celery cores and leaves) are used, as the solids are removed from stock.

  • Herbs and spices: The herbs and spices used depend on availability and local traditions. In classical cuisine, the use of a bouquet garni (or bag of herbs) consisting of parsley, bay leaves, a sprig of thyme, and possibly other herbs, is common. This is often placed in a sachet to make it easier to remove once the stock is cooked.

Precautions to be taken while preparing a stock

Stocks must be simmered long enough to extract the maximum flavor from the ingredients. For a veal stock, this means at least 3.5 hours, while a chicken stock requires only 2.5 hours and a fish stock just 20 minutes. The stock must be carefully skimmed after it is brought to a boil to remove any fat and gray scum that rise to the surface, but it must never be boiled during cooking, as this would make it cloudy.

Stocks may be refrigerated for several weeks provided they are brought to a boil every 2 to 3 days. Or they may be reduced to a thick, syrup glaze, called a glace, that will set to a very firm consistency when chilled and may be refrigerated for several months (glaces are used as sauce bases of or to intensify the flavor of and give body to sauces). Stocks may also be frozen for several months; it makes good sense to freeze them in small quantities so that you need thaw only the amount necessary.


Classify sauces. Give recipe of one ltr. of Mayonnaise. What precautions are taken during preparation and storage of Mayonnaise.

classification of sauces

recipe of 1 ltr of mayonnaise


4 egg yolks. 1 tea spoon of dijon mustard. 1 spoon of vinegar or lemon juice. 10g table salt. 1g white pepper. 1 litre vegetable oil.


In a bowl dissolve the salt in half of the vinegar or lemon juice. Add in the mustard and egg yolks and mix them well.

Very gently and very gradually, start stirring in the oil. When it starts thickening, slowly increase the amount of oil that is incorporated to the mixture (again, no more than a drizzle).

Finish the sauce by adding the rest of the lemon juice or vinegar and season with the white pepper.

precautions to be taken while making and storing mayonnaise

Never use aluminum bowls or saucepans to prepare mayonnaise, as they will turn the mayonnaise gray. Stainless steel, enameled, plastic (food processor) or glass may be used.

Add the oil very slowly, especially at the beginning.

Since homemade mayonnaise has fresh eggs in it, the mayonnaise should not be left at room temperature for more than a couple hours, as food poisoning is always a concern.


Q.10. Explain any ten of the following terms:

(a) Chinois

A chinois is a conical sieve with an extremely fine mesh. It is used to strain custards, purees, soups, and sauces, producing a very smooth texture. It can also be used to dust food with a fine layer of powdered ingredient

(b) Lyonnaise

food, especially sliced potatoes cooked with onions or with a white wine and onion sauce.

(c) Roux

lour and fat cooked together and used to thicken sauces. Roux is typically made from equal parts of flour and fat by weight. The flour is added to the melted fat or oil on the stove top, blended until smooth, and cooked to the desired level of brownness.

(d) Slurry

A thickening mixture that is made up of equal parts flour and water, that is prepared for use in making soups, stews and sauces. Once the slurry is added the mixture should be thoroughly cooked for several minutes to eliminate the raw taste of the flour. This mixture is also referred to as “whitewash.”

(e) Docking

The act of piercing small holes or making cuts in dough or crust before baking to allow steam to escape, thus preventing the dough from rising as it bakes.

(f) Mirepoix

Carrots, onions, celery, pork (salted optional) cut into fine dices, with thyme, bay leaf. Improves the flavour of the dish

(g) Jugged

Jugging is the process of stewing whole animals, mainly game or fish, for an extended period in a tightly covered container such as a casserole or an earthenware jug.

(h) Bouquet Garni

A bouquet of fresh herbs such as parsley, bay leaf, thyme tied together in a cheese cloth bag, to flavour soups, stews and removed before dish is served.

(i) Mousse

Applied to a very light dessert generally prepared with whipped cream, egg whites, gelatin and sugar, etc. chilled and frozen. Also referred to meat dishes with egg, cream, gelatin and seasoning, served for cold buffets.

(j) Vollaile

it is the french word for poultry

(k) Blind baking

Baking blind is the process of baking a pie crust or other pastry without the filling.

(l) Smoke point

The smoke point, also referred to as the burning point, is the temperature at which an oil or fat begins to produce a continuous bluish smoke that becomes clearly visible, dependent upon specific and defined conditions.


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