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Food Production | Solved Paper | 2014-15 | 1st Sem B.Sc HHA

Topic Wise Notes: Food Production

Please note: The answers provided below, are just for reference. Always consult your college professor if you have any queries.


Q.1. What are the essential protective clothings for kitchen staff? Explain the importance of each.

Essential protective clothing

Toque/Headwear - Keeps the head cool and prevents the hair from falling into the food. - Cotton/cloth caps are difficult to maintain whereas, paper caps are disposable hence they are neat. - The number of pleats on the chef cap indicates the number of ways in which an egg can be prepared.

Scarf/Neckerchief - Absorbs sweat. - Identification/designation.

Double-breasted jacket • Protects the chest and front. • Easy to remove overhead or sideways. • Cotton cloth buttons – heat resistant.

Apron - Below knee level. - Double protection prevents the jacket & trousers from becoming dirty.

Cotton checked trousers - Double shade hides the dirt. - Identifies designation.

Shoes and Socks - Clogs can be used but it is expensive - The frame in front protects the toes. - Easy to remove legs. - Socks - Absorbs sweat. - Provides good grip. - Steady steps while walking


What are the attitudes and behaviour expected from a kitchen staff? Explain personal hygiene standards for them.

A positive attitude towards the job is expected from the kitchen personnel as the job requires a lot of hard work and patience. To become a successful chef, zeal to learn, creative nature, and a strong sense of responsibility are desired. While working in the kitchen, a person is dealing with sharp tools, electric machines with blades, gas, fires which all are very dangerous if treated without carefulness, therefore a presence of mind is a must.

Following are the main causes of accidents in the kitchen-

Distraction: Distraction in the kitchen can be caused by the other personnel working in the kitchen, mobile phones, and personal problems. It is advised while working in the kitchen mobile phones should not be kept or attended, must keep the mind free from the personal issues while at work, and should not participate in gossips/jokes/talks especially while dealing with sharp tools.

Haste: The guest is god, his satisfaction is a must but not at the cost of someone’s life/health. A given work must be finished on time for which a work plan or schedule can be made, mise-en-place can be done in advance to avoid the running situations in the kitchen which can cause an accident either by falling or by pushing someone or by harming oneself by the sharp tools.

Failure to observe rules and regulations: As new machines are getting the place in the kitchens to create new recipes and to ease the job of chefs but attention must be paid to rules and regulations to operate these machines as avoidance of the same could call for the major accidents. The guidelines must be pasted over the walls near to the machines to read the instructions before operations.

Do’s for Personal Hygiene

• Bath or shower daily. • Wear clean uniforms and aprons. • Keep hair neat and clean. Always wear a hat or hairnet. • Keep mustaches and beards trimmed and clean. Better yet, be cleanly shaven. • Wash hands and exposed parts of arms before work and as often as necessary during work, including: - After eating, drinking, or smoking. - After using the toilet. - After touching or handling anything that may be contaminated with bacteria. - Cover cough and sneezes and then wash hands. • Keep your hands away from your face, eyes, hair, and arms. • Cover cuts or sores with clean bandages. • Use spoons for a tasting, not your finger.

Don’ts for Personal Hygiene

• Do not work with food if you have any communicable disease or infection. • Keep fingernails clean and short. Do not wear nail polish. • Do not smoke or chew gum or tobacco while on duty. • Do not sit on worktables. • Avoid wearing jewellery in the kitchen. • Do not use kitchen sinks for personal washing or for spitting.


Q.2. Give hierarchy of kitchen brigade in English, also mention French equivalents.


Q.3. Define Mise-en-place and explain the techniques used in the pre-preparation.

Mise en place is French for “putting in place” and is used for prepping kitchen equipment and food before serving. Mise en place, which first began being used in the late 1800s. The term mise en place is a phrase that also references the discipline and organization that a good chef practices in the kitchen.

Techniques used in pre-preparation:

Raw materials used in food production are mostly natural products. They are available in various shapes and weights. For example, no two potatoes or onions will be the same in size, shape, and weight. No two red pumpkins will be of the same size, shape, and weight. Preparing finished product calls for basic uniformity in size, shape, and weight. This is the base for uniformity in cooking and also the appearance of the food. Breaking down the raw materials into the required form is called ‘pre-preparation’. Following are a few pre-preparation techniques –

  • Washing – superficial dirt is removed during washing. Vegetables, fish, meat and sometimes even eggs are washed with cold water before any other process. These days this is done at the very entrance of the store to prevent any dirt and mud entering the store /kitchen/workplace. Water-soluble vitamins and minerals are lost if they are soaked for a long period of time or washed after cutting.

  • Peeling and scraping – spoilt, soiled and inedible portions are removed. Skins of potatoes, carrots, radish or fruits can be removed by peeling. Smaller ingredients like ginger, galangal are scraped. Peel off as little of the fleshy part as possible. If vegetables like carrots are washed well, their peels could be used for making stocks.

  • Paring – remove surface layers by using a circular motion as in paring an apple.

  • Cutting – reducing to smaller parts with a knife or a pair of scissors. When a chopping knife or a food chopper is used, it is termed as chopping.

    • Cutting into even size cubes - dicing.

    • Cutting into very fine pieces - mincing.

    • A cutting (especially green leafy vegetables & cabbage) into fine, long pieces - shredding.

    • Cutting into slightly thicker, flat pieces - slicing.

  • Grating – reducing to fine particles by rubbing over a rough, sharp surface.

  • Grinding – reducing to fine fragments by crushing in a mill, a grinding stone or an ostirizer.

  • Mashing – breaking up soft foods like cooked potatoes. {SMASHes are in boxing, NOT is food production}

  • Sieving – passing through a mesh to remove impurities or to break down into even parts or to enclose air.

  • Milling – used for cereals, to remove the husk.

  • Steeping – extracting coloring or/and flavoring by allowing ingredients to stand in water at a simmering temperature.

  • Centrifuging – Separate two parts of a substance by application of whirling force like separation of cream from milk.

  • Emulsification – Blending or mixing to non-mixable (insoluble) liquids by application of force.

  • Evaporation / Reduction – removal of moisture by heating.

  • Homogenization – a subdivision of large drops into smaller ones by forcing them through a small opening under great pressure.


Q.4. What are pigments? Explain the different types of pigments and the effect of heat on pigments.

There is a special group of molecular structures that gives colour to fruits and vegetables, these are pigments. Pigments are not only present in foods, but are also used to colour a lot of other products such as paint, clothes, etc. Pigments are good in absorbing a specific set of wavelengths and reflecting the remainder, thus making colour. They have this ability due to their chemical structures. The atoms are organized in such a way that they are good in absorbing these specific wave lengths.

  • Chlorophyll: it is present in all green coloured vegetables such as cabbage, spinach, green beans, broccoli, peas etc.

  • Carotenoids: it is present in orange coloured vegetables such as carrots, pumpkins, sweet potatoes, corns, tomatoes etc

  • Flavons: it is present in white coloured vegetables such as cauliflower, turnips, potatoes, onion etc.

  • Anthocyanins: it is present in red & purple coloured vegetables. Beet roots, red cabbage (not tomatoes).


Classify fruits and vegetables in detail.

Classification of Vegetables

  • Cabbage Family: Consist of vegetables used for their head, leaves, or flowers are also known as BRASSICA. E.g. Cabbage, Brussels Sprouts, Cauliflower, Kohlrabi, Broccoli etc

  • Stalk Vegetable: Stalk vegetables are plant stems that are high in cellulose. E.g. Asparagus, Celery, Bok Choy etc.

  • Leafy Vegetables: Leafy vegetables are plant grown specifically for their edible leaves. E.g. Spinach, Kale, Sorrel etc.

  • Salad Greens: Endive, Lettuce

  • Seeds, Edible Pods and Young Shoots: This is a broad category of vegetables it includes Peas, Snow peas, All types of beans, Bean sprout, Corn etc.

  • Vegetable Fruits: Botanically vegetable fruit are considered fruits; however they are used in the kitchen as vegetables. E.g. Cucumber, Okra, Eggplant, Tomatoes, Pepper, Squash etc.

  • Bulbs: Bulbs are stems holding A food reserve in the fleshy, overlapping which give shape to the vegetable. E.g. Onion, Scallion, Green onion, Shallots, Garlic etc.

  • Fungi: Mushrooms are not actually vegetables. They are an edible fungus. There are over 38,000 kinds of mushrooms. Three-quarters of these are edible. E.g. Mushroom, Morel, Truffles etc.

  • Tubers: These are formed from underground stems, which extend from the root of the plant. E.g. Jerusalem Artichoke, Carrot, Potatoes, Raddish, Turnips etc.

  • Spatiality Vegetables: There are vegetables that do not fit it any other category. E.g. Artichoke, Rhubarb etc.

Fruits can be divided into the following groups:

  • Tree and Stone Fruits: Include all apples, apricots, cherries, peaches, pears, plums, etc.

  • Citrus Fruits : Include grapefruits, lemons, limes, mandarins, oranges, etc.

  • Soft Fruits and Berries: Include blackberries, blackcurrants, blueberries, gooseberries, mulberries, raspberries, redcurrants, strawberries, etc.

  • Exotic Fruits: Include bananas, cranberries, dates, figs, grapes, guavas, kiwi fruit, lychees, mangoes, mangosteens, melons, papayas, passion fruits, pineapples, pomegranates, rambutans, and star fruits.


Q.5. (a) Define and classify stock.

Stock can be simply defined as a liquid which has been simmered for a long time in order to extract flavours from the ingredients used. Any type of liquid can be used to start a stock. In almost all the cases, water is the liquid medium used, but then certain stocks can be made using a combination of milk and water as well. However, milk and various other liquid mediums are strictly regional. In classical Western cooking, water is the medium used to start a stock.

Stock is usually made from bones and vegetables. The types of bones used for a stock would depend upon the final usage of the stock. To prepare chicken stock one would use chicken bones only and similarly, to get lamb stock one has to use lamb bones and so on. However, in hotels, four major stocks such as chicken, lamb, beef, and fish are prepared.

Classification of Stock:

The bones and vegetables are simmered to extract colour, flavour, aroma, and body of the resulting stock. The stocks are basically classified according to their colours. These are discussed below.

1. White Stock: Both white and brown stocks are made from bones and vegetables, however, the process followed for each one are slightly different. Many people think that white stocks are made from white meat and brown stocks from red; but this is not true. In case of white stock the bones are blanched’ to get rid of the impurities.

Vegetables such as leeks, onions, celery, and turnips are used to flavour the stock as red coloured vegetables such as carrots, etc. will change the colour of the stock. No tomato product is used for white stocks.

2. Brown Stock: In case of brown stocks, the bones and vegetables are roasted or caramelized. Tomato paste is used and it is also sautéed to get a deep brown colour. The colour of the brown stock should be amber colour. The shin bones of beef have the best flavours and hence, the most preferred for brown beef stocks.

(b) List the precautions to be taken in preparing stocks.

Precautions to be taken while preparing a stock

Stocks must be simmered long enough to extract the maximum flavor from the ingredients. For a veal stock, this means at least 3.5 hours, while a chicken stock requires only 2.5 hours and a fish stock just 20 minutes. The stock must be carefully skimmed after it is brought to a boil to remove any fat and gray scum that rise to the surface, but it must never be boiled during cooking, as this would make it cloudy.

Stocks may be refrigerated for several weeks provided they are brought to a boil every 2 to 3 days. Or they may be reduced to a thick, syrup glaze, called a glace, that will set to a very firm consistency when chilled and may be refrigerated for several months (glaces are used as sauce bases of or to intensify the flavor of and give body to sauces). Stocks may also be frozen for several months; it makes good sense to freeze them in small quantities so that you need thaw only the amount necessary.


(a) Define sauce and explain the mother sauce.

Definition Sauces are liquid or semi-liquid mixtures. A keen sense of smell, delicate sense of taste, a light, strong hand for blending – all contribute to the perfect sauce. Long ago, Grimande de la Royere, philosopher and gastronomer wrote: “The sauce is to culinary art, what grammar is to language”. A perfect sauce has a colorful appearance, is glowing in its rich smoothness, its texture is that of velvet, and it has a definite taste. It has natural flavor and complements the food it accompanies, rather than mask its taste.

In the culinary arts, the term “mother sauce” refers to any one of six basic sauces, which are the starting points for making various secondary sauces or “small sauces.” They’re called mother sauces because each one is like the head of its own unique family.

The six basic mother sauces are:

  • bachamel sauce

  • veloute sauce

  • espagnole sauce

  • tomato sauce

  • hollandaise sauce

  • mayonaise

(b) Give the recipe for 5 ltr. brown stock.

You will need:

Bones: 8kg veal or beef bones 10 litres cold water Mirepoix: 500g onions, chopped; 250g carrots, chopped; 250 g celery, chopped Acid: 500g tomato purée Sachet d’épices: 1 Bay leaf; ¼ tsp Dried thyme; ¼ tsp peppercorns; 6–8 parsley stalks; 2 whole cloves Preparing the brown stock:

  • Cut the bones into pieces, 8-10 cm long – do not wash or blanch the bones as the moisture would hinder browning.

  • Place the bones in a roasting pan in one layer and brown in a moderately hot oven at 190°C / 375°F / Gas 5 / Fan 170°C or higher. The bones must be well browned to colour the stock sufficiently. This takes over 1 hour. You can oil the bones lightly before browning.

  • When the bones are well browned, remove them from the pan and place them in a stockpot.

  • Cover with cold water and bring to a simmer.

  • Drain and reserve the fat from the roasting pan.

  • Deglaze the pan by adding water and stirring over heat until all the brown drippings are dissolved or loosened and add to the stockpot.

  • While the stock is getting started, place the mirepoix in the roasting pan with some of the reserved fat and brown the vegetables well in the oven.

  • Add the tomato purée to the mirepoix and continue to brown until the tomato purée turns a rusty brown colour.

  • When the water in the stockpot comes to a simmer, skim the scum that comes to the surface, using a skimmer or perforated spoon. Skimming is important for a clear stock because the scum (which is fat and coagulated protein) will cloud the stock if it is broken up and mixed back into the liquid.

  • Add the browned vegetables and the tomato purée to the stockpot. If desired, they may be held out until 2 to 3 hours before the end of the cooking time. Remember, the size to which you cut mirepoix depends on how long it is to be cooked.

  • Do not let the stock boil. Keep it at a low simmer. Boiling makes the stock cloudy because it breaks solids into tiny particles that get mixed into the liquid.

  • Skim the surface as often as necessary during cooking.

  • Keep the water level above the bones.Add more water if the stock reduces below this level. Bones cooked while exposed to air will turn dark and thus darken or discolor the stock. Also, they do not release flavour into the water if the water doesn’t touch them.

  • Simmer for the recommended length of time: Beef bones—8 to 10 hours – Veal bones—6 to 8 hours. Nowadays, we do not simmer stocks as long as earlier generations did. It is true that longer cooking extracts more gelatin, but gelatin isn’t the only factor in a good stock. Flavours begin to break down or degenerate over time. The above times are felt to be the best for obtaining full flavour while still getting a good portion of gelatin into the stock.

  • Skim the surface and strain off the stock through a chinois lined with several layers of cheesecloth. Adding a little cold water to the stock before skimming stops the cooking and brings more fat and impurities to the surface.

  • Cool the stock as quickly as possible, as follows: • Set the pot in a sink with blocks, a rack, or some other object under it. This is called venting. It allows cold water to flow under the pot as well as around it. • Run cold water into the sink, but not higher than the level of the stock, or the pot will become unsteady. • Stir the pot occasionally so all the stock cools evenly. Hang a ladle in the pot so you can give it a quick stir whenever you pass the sink without actually taking extra time to do it. Cooling stock quickly and properly is important. Improperly cooled stock can spoil in 6 to 8 hours because it is a good breeding ground for bacteria that cause foodborne disease and spoilage. Do not set the hot stock in the fridge. All that heat and steam will overload the refrigerator and may damage other perishables as well as the equipment.

  • When cool, refrigerate the stock in covered containers. Stock will keep 2 to 3 days if properly refrigerated. Stock can also be frozen and will keep for several months.


Q.6. List the ways of heat transfer and explain the wet method and dry methods of cooking.

Ways of Heat Transfer

Heat can travel from one place to another in three ways: Conduction, Convection and Radiation. Both conduction and convection require matter to transfer heat. If there is a temperature difference between two systems heat will always find a way to transfer from the higher to lower system.


Conduction is the transfer of heat between substances that are in direct contact with each other. The better the conductor, the more rapidly heat will be transferred. Metal is a good conduction of heat. Conduction occurs when a substance is heated, particles will gain more energy, and vibrate more. These molecules then bump into nearby particles and transfer some of their energy to them. This then continues and passes the energy from the hot end down to the colder end of the substance.


Thermal energy is transferred from hot places to cold places by convection. Convection occurs when warmer areas of a liquid or gas rise to cooler areas in the liquid or gas. Cooler liquid or gas then takes the place of the warmer areas which have risen higher. This results in a continous circulation pattern. Water boiling in a pan is a good example of these convection currents. Another good example of convection is in the atmosphere. The earth’s surface is warmed by the sun, the warm air rises and cool air moves in.


Radiation is a method of heat transfer that does not rely upon any contact between the heat source and the heated object as is the case with conduction and convection. Heat can be transmitted through empty space by thermal radiation often called infrared radiation. This is a type electromagnetic radiation . No mass is exchanged and no medium is required in the process of radiation. Examples of radiation is the heat from the sun, or heat released from the filament of a light bulb.

Dry Heat Cooking

Dry heat cooking refers to any cooking technique where the heat is transferred to the food item without using any moisture. Dry-heat cooking typically involves high heat, with temperatures of 300 F or hotter. Baking or roasting in an oven is a dry heat method because it uses hot air to conduct the heat. Pan-searing a steak is considered dry-heat cooking because the heat transfer takes place through the hot metal of the pan. Note that the browning of food (including the process by which meat is browned, called the Maillard reaction) can only be achieved through dry-heat cooking. Examples of dry-heat methods include:

  • Roasting & Baking

  • Grilling & Broiling

  • Sautéing & Pan-Frying

  • Deep-Frying

Moist Heat Cooking

Moist heat cooking methods include any techniques that involve cooking with moisture—whether it’s steam, water, stock, wine or some other liquid. Cooking temperatures are much lower — anywhere from 140 F to a maximum of 212 F, because water doesn’t get any hotter than that. Examples of moist-heat cooking methods include:

  • Poaching, Simmering & Boiling

  • Steaming

  • Braising & Stewing


Q.7. (a) Draw and label neatly the structure of egg.

Shell Bumpy and grainy in texture, an eggshell is covered with as many as 17,000 tiny pores. Eggshell is made almost entirely of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) crystals. It is a semi-permeable membrane, which means that air and moisture can pass through its pores. The shell also has a thin outermost coating called the bloom or cuticle that helps keep out bacteria and dust.

Inner and Outer Membranes Lying between the eggshell and egg white, these two transparent protein membranes provide efficient defense against bacterial invasion. If you tug at these layers, you’ll find they’re surprisingly strong. They’re made partly of keratin, a protein that’s also in human hair.

Air Cell An air space forms when the contents of the egg cool and contract after the egg is laid. The air cell usually rests between the outer and inner membranes at the egg’s larger end, and it accounts for the crater you often see at the end of a hard-cooked egg. The air cell grows larger as egg ages

Albumen The egg white is known as the albumen, which comes from albus, the Latin word for “white.” Four alternating layers of thick and thin albumen contain approximately 40 different proteins, the main components of the egg white in addition to water.

Chalazae Opaque ropes of egg white, the chalazae hold the yolk in the center of the egg. Like, little anchors, they attach the yolk’s casing to the membrane lining the eggshell. The more prominent they are, the fresher the egg.

Vitelline Membrane The clear casing that encloses the yolk.

Yolk The yolk contains less water and more protein than the white, some fat, and most of the vitamins and minerals of the egg. These include iron, vitamin A, vitamin D, phosphorus, calcium, thiamine, and riboflavin. The yolk is also a source of lecithin, an effective emulsifier. Yolk color ranges from just a hint of yellow to a magnificent deep orange, according to the feed and breed of the hen.

(b) Give the uses of egg in cookery.

Binding Addition of eggs to minced mead and mashed vegetables etc. helps to bind the mixture. As the heat coagulates, the proteins are bound into a cohesive mass. It helps to retain the shape of mutton croquettes, meatloaf, medallions, hamburgers, etc.

Coating The egg and egg batter help to give a coat to the food items and prevent them from disintegrating and give them a protective coating. Many of the food items such as fish fillets, croquettes, etc. are dipped into the batter before crumbing and then fried. Eggs are also used for preparing pancake batters.

Leavening By beating the egg whites, foam is made up of air bubbles, surrounded by a thin elastic film of egg white. The mixture, when added to products such as sponge cakes, meringues, soufflés, etc., increases the volume and the egg white film hardens. The addition of sugar to egg white makes it stable, smooth, and the foam does not collapse easily. Egg yolk has a less foaming power because of its fat content. An egg is used as the principal ingredient for Chou paste from which éclairs, beignets, fritters, and profiteroles are made.

Emulsifying Eggs form stable emulsions. For example, mayonnaise, oil, and vinegar separate unless oil droplets are coated with a substance that keeps them from separating. Eggs are the emulsifiers that give a smooth mayonnaise sauce. It is also used as an emulsifier in ice creams, cakes, cream puffs. Eggs enhance color and shine.

Thickening Eggs help to improve the consistency of gravies, curries, sauces, and soups. Egg liaisons used in soups and sauces help to thicken and improve consistency. When used in custards, the heat coagulates the eggs and makes the custard firm.

Decoration and Garnishing of Dishes Silver, sieved or quarters of boiled eggs are used to decorate or garnish dishes such as salads, biryanis, curries, Vienna steaks, etc. For Consommé Xavier, threaded eggs are added as a garnish.

Clarifying Consommés are clarified with egg whites.


Q.8. Define shortening and explain the various types of shortening on the basis of smoking point.

By definition, shortening is any type of fat that is solid at room temperature; lard, hydrogenated solidified oils, margarine, and even butter can be used as shortening. However, in the modern kitchen, the word “shortening” mainly refers to hydrogenated oils, such as vegetable shortening. Similar to lard, vegetable shortening is a semisolid fat with a high smoke point and low water content, making it a safe choice for frying. It is also used in baking to create tender results. Shortening is 100 percent fat, doesn’t have any odor or flavor, and does not require refrigeration.

Type of fat

Smoking point


150 °C (302 °F)

Canola oil

205 °C (401 °F)

Coconut oil

177 °C (351 °F)

Corn oil

230 °C (446 °F)


190 °C (374 °F)

Peanut oil

225 °C (437 °F)

Olive oil

190 °C (374 °F)

Rice bran oil

250 °C (482 °F)

Soybean oil

257 °C (495 °F)


200 °C (392 °F)

Sunflower oil

225 °C (437 °F)

Vegetable shortening (hydrogenated)

165 °C (329 °F)


(a) Explain the different types of raising agents.

Raising agents that are used in the kitchen can be classified into the following categories:

Biological (yeast) Chemical (baking powder, baking soda, baking ammonia) Mechanical (beating, whisking, creaming, sieving) Lamination Combination of all Biological Raising Agent Yeast can be of two types:

Fresh or compressed yeast Dry yeast The scientific name of yeast is Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yeast is unicellular microscopic fungi.

The structure of yeast consist :

  • Cell wall

  • Protoplasm

  • Vacoale

  • Food

  • Simple sugar like dextrose or fructose.

Fermentation activity

The protoplasm of yeast contains the following enzymes:

  • Invertase It converts cane sugar or sucrose into a simpler form of sugar which is known as invert sugar, which is a combination of dextrose and fructose.

  • Maltase It converts maltose sugar into dextrose which can be directly fermented by yeast.

  • Zymase This is the most important fermenting agent which breaks invert sugar and dextrose to carbon dioxide, some amount of pure alcohol, and a very small amount of glycerine, acetic acid and some amount of lactic acid. It also produces some flavourful aroma which gives a pleasant fermentation flavor.

  • Protease It softens down the flour protein, thus gives a better stretchability for the bread (to be specific on gluten) so that it can get a good volume and structure.

Storage of yeast Stored at 45 degrees F. Yeast is killed by heat in a range of 127 degrees to 140 degrees F.

Chemical Raising Agent Chemical raising agent is brought about by the production of carbon dioxide in a solution of acid and alkali, in the presence of heat.

  • Baking Powder It is a leavening agent made up of a mixture of an acid reacting salt with bicarbonate of soda. We also add some starch to the mixture to keep it in a dried condition and also to act as a separator between sodium bicarbonate and acid reacting salt, until used. On the presence of both heat and moisture, the acid reacting salt reacts with sodium bicarbonate and releases carbon dioxide. A part of the gas is entrapped into the gluten structure or small air cells of a batter which already has developed because of creaming action of fat, these structures now expand with the production of the gas and during baking also and the small part of the gas is absorbed by the media itself. Cream of tarter is a form of refining tartar which is a by-product of precipitation from the grape wine manufacturing process

  • Ammonium Carbonate It also produces carbon dioxide in the presence of heat but because of the strong offensive flavor, it is always to be used with very strong flavoring agents.

Mechanical Raising Agent It is an incorporation of air by beating, creaming, whisking and sieving. Whisking of egg and sugar, creaming of fat and sugar, sieving of flour are the eg of mechanical raising. All these actions involve physical movement hence known as mechanical raising or leavening.

Lamination Or Water Vapour Lamination acts as a raising procedure where the fat and dough is folded and rolled. The moisture incorporated in the fat and the dough also will vaporize during baking and gives it the lift (or raising).

In Indian cuisine, idlis and dhoklas are steamed where heat helps to puff up the final product by vapourising the steam. In popcorn, the corn pop because of the moisture present inside and ultimately its volume increase. In choux pastry water vapor acts as raising agent.

Combination Of All Danish pastry is an eg. of combination raising where we use yeast in the dough and fat is used by a lamination process. Some other eg. are vanilla buns, fruit cake, etc, where we use whisking, creaming and chemical raising, agents.

(b) Give in detail the different types of sugar.

Sugar is available in many different forms. Some various forms of sugar are white sugar, caster sugar, granulated sugar, icing sugar, decorating sugar, vanilla sugar, cube sugar, jam sugar, jelly sugar, granulated brown sugar, soft brown sugar, demerara sugar, muscovado sugar, sugar syrup.

White Sugar Refining raw sugar obtained from sugar cane or sugar beet, removing all impurities, makes white sugar.

Caster Sugar Caster sugar is white, granulated sugar with very fine sugar crystals. It is also called superfine sugar, ultra-fine sugar or bar sugar. It is best used in baking and desserts, in the making of cakes, mousses, and drinks, as well as in foods and pastries that are sprinkled, rolled or coated with sugar. Also known as Breakfast sugar. In dishes where sugar is to be whipped with eggs, cream, etc, it is best to use superfine sugar.

Granulated Sugar Regular granulated sugar has coarser crystals than caster or superfine sugar. It may be used in making preserves, jams, marmalades and sugar syrups. In making jams, marmalades, preserves, etc, superfine sugar can be replaced with coarser granulated sugar.

Icing Sugar Icing sugar, also known as confectioners’ sugar, is made of white sugar ground into a smooth, white powder and used in icings, confections, drinks, etc. There is usually an amount of starch mixed in icing sugar to prevent clumping. Also differently colored or flavored icing sugars can be found in the sale.

Decorating Sugar This white, large crystal sugar is unevenly shaped and used to sprinkle on top of sweet buns and other baked goods for garnish. It may also be called pearl, sanding, coarse or crystal sugar. There are also colored decorating sugars on sale.

Vanilla Sugar A rather good substitute for real vanilla, vanilla sugar is powdered or granulated white sugar flavored with real vanilla bean. Usually, there are little black dots of powdered vanilla bean or seeds visible in the sugar. Vanilla sugar is used instead of vanilla bean to give vanilla flavor to various sweet baked goods, desserts, whipped cream, and beverages. It is added to foods only in a small amount (usually 1 – 2 teaspoons per batch of batter, dough, etc).

Cube Sugar Also called lump sugar, sugar cubes are made by molding and drying moistened, hot granulated sugar. Coming in various forms and colors, lump sugar is mainly used to sweeten various hot drinks. In cooking, lump sugar and sugar cubes may be used instead of granulated sugar in recipes where sugar is melted, like syrups and caramel. Sugar cubes are also used in desserts like Crêpes Suzette, where they are rubbed against the zest of citrus fruit to absorb their essential oils, to flavor the dish. Lump sugar can be ground into granules or powdered using a mortar, a blender or a food processor.

Jam Sugar Jam sugar is a special gelling sugar used in making jams, marmalades, jellies, and other preserves, instead of regular white sugar. It consists of white, granulated sugar (about 98 %) added with natural fruit pectin (E440, gelling agent), citric acid (E330, antioxidant) and potassium sorbate (E202, preservative). When using jam sugar, the cooking time of various preserves is often reduced, thus better maintaining the flavors, colors, and vitamins of the fruits and berries used. Jam sugar cannot be used instead of regular sugar in baking or cooking, but only in making of jams, marmalades and fruit compotes or soups.

Jelly Sugar Jelly sugar is used to decorate desserts and pastries and to make a set, clear dessert jellies. Jelly made with jelly sugar is spooned or brushed over berry and fruit garnishes to give them a thin and shiny, protective jelly coating. Jelly sugar is not suitable to be used in milk-based jellies and puddings or canning and preserving. Jelly sugar consists of white, granulated sugar, glucose syrup, natural fruit pectin (E440, gelling agent) and citric acid (E330, antioxidant).

Granulated brown sugar Regular granulated brown sugar is made by coating white sugar with a layer of dark molasses. It has loose, non-sticky sugar crystals with the color ranging from light to dark brown. This type of brown sugar has a light, clean molasses flavor and coarser texture than white, superfine sugar. Granulated brown sugar can be replaced for example with demerara sugar.

Soft Brown Sugar Soft brown sugar is made by coating white sugar with a layer of dark molasses. It is firmly packed, moist and slightly sticky, and has a stronger molasses flavor than brown, loose sugar. Soft brown sugar should be stored wrapped airtight to prevent it from drying and hardening into a clump.

Demerara Sugar Named after the Demerara area of Guyana, the coarse-grained demerara sugar is brown, partially refined raw sugar-containing some residual impurities. The color of demerara sugar varies from golden brown (e.g. turbinado sugar) to dark brown, with a strong dark molasses flavor. Demerara sugar can be used to sweeten and flavor various hot beverages, and it is used in fruit and berry desserts or in making candies and toffees. Depending on its color, texture, and depth of flavor, it can be used to replace granulated or soft brown sugar in many sweet and savory dishes. Turbinado sugar is a further refined type of demerara sugar with a pale color and a mild flavor.

Muscovado Sugar Muscovado sugar is the darkest of the partially refined brown raw sugars. It has slightly sticky crystals, with the color varying from light to dark brown. Muscovado sugar can be used to flavor tea, coffee, and other beverages. It brings a deep and dusky flavor of molasses into various dishes and desserts. Light muscovado sugar can be used to replace soft brown sugar in cooking and baking.

Sugar Syrups Heating a measured quantity of sugar and water to boiling to dissolve the sugar and then boiling very briefly until the syrup is clear makes simple sugar syrups. Cooked sugar syrups differ from simple syrups in that they are left to boil until the water evaporates and the sugar cooks to a higher temperature. (The quantity of water used to make a cooked sugar is not crucial because it will be completely boiled off; you need use only enough to dissolve the sugar and in fact, some professionals do without the water entirely). Cooked sugars are categorized by different stages of cooking, from the softball stage at a temperature of about 240ÚF, through a hard bill, light crack, hard crack and finally to caramel, which measures well over 300ÚF, depending on the darkness of the color.


Q.9. Explain in short the following terms:

(a) Mirepoix :

Carrots, onions, celery, pork (salted optional) cut into fine dices, with thyme, bay leaf. Improves the flavour of the dish

(b) Bouquet garni

A bouquet of fresh herbs such as parsley, bay leaf, thyme tied together in a cheese cloth bag, to flavour soups, stews and removed before dish is served.

(c) Fond

the foundation of cooking, stock in french cuisine

(d) Tournant

relief chef

(e) Braising

fry (food) lightly and then stew it slowly in a closed container.

(f) Albumin

Albumin is a class of proteins found in egg whites, milk, blood, and various plant and animal tissues.

(g) Beurre manié

Equal quantities of flour and butter put in sauces, etc. for thickening.

(h) Aioli

mayonnaise seasoned with garlic.

(i) Knockback

After bread has been left to rise, it needs to have the excess air knocked out of it before proving. This is called ‘knocking back’.

(j) Blind baking

process of baking a pie crust or other pastry without the filling.


Q.10. Match the following:

(a) Carotene (i) Cauliflower

(b) Consommé (ii) Pork fat

(c) Lyonnaise (iii) Top heat

(d) Aubergine (iv) Fried egg

(e) Lard (v) Carrot

(f) Beurre (vi) Butter

(g) Broiling (vii) Clarified soup

(h) Pommes (viii) Brinjal

(i) Flavons (ix) Apple

(j) Sunny side-up (x) Onion


(a) Carotene (i) Carrot

(b) Consommé (ii) clarified soup

(c) Lyonnaise (iii) onion

(d) Aubergine (iv) brinjal

(e) Lard (v) pork fat

(f) Beurre (vi) Butter

(g) Broiling (vii) top heat

(h) Pommes (viii) Brinjal

(i) Flavons (ix) Apple

(j) Sunny side-up (x) fried egg


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