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Food & Beverage Operations | Solved Papers | 2016-2017 | 5th Sem B.Sc HHA

Topic-Wise Notes: Food & Beverage Operations


Please note: The answers provided below, are just for reference. Always consult your college professor if you have any queries.

 

Q.1. Why kitchen stewarding is also called the backbone of restaurant operations? What are the challenges kitchen stewarding department encounters on a day-to-day basis? (6+4=10)


Kitchen Stewarding is one of the most important support departments of the F&B department. Kitchen stewarding contributes to the successful operation of the Food production and service department.

It performs the following functions:

  • Washing kitchen pots and pans(scullery/pot wash)

  • Maintaining kitchen equipment

  • Cleaning all kitchen equipment and ensuring hygiene

  • Garbage disposal

  • Washing all service equipment including the ones used in banquets

  • Polishing silverware

  • Sending damaged silverware for plating

  • Pest control

  • Carrying transporting heavy articles

  • Indenting for new crockery cutlery

Challenges kitchen stewarding department encounters on a day-to-day basis:

  • Breakage and damage of glassware and silverware

  • Working among some hazardous conditions like slippery surfaces and sharp objects.

  • Exposed to different kinds of cleaning agents and chemicals.

  • The backs and spines of the KST department are compromised due to lifting heavyweights.

  • It’s difficult to Clean the gas connections and tandoor due to high temperatures.

  • Long working hours and a shortage of labor can also be a challenge.

 

Q.2. Explain what is Gueridon Service. What are the other variations in the restaurant market where the core concept is quite similar to Gueridon service? (6+4=10)


Gueridon Service is a term used in the restaurant business to refer to “trolley service.” Food is cooked, finished, or presented to the guest at a table, from a moveable trolley. Dishes typically served like this include Crepes Suzette, Caesar Salad, Cherries Jubilee, Banana Flambé, and Steak Tartar. There are several reasons for Gueridon Service:

  • ensures exact serving temperature and stage for any dishes sensitive to this;

  • turns food into entertainment;

  • creates an atmosphere of sophistication;

  • stimulate demands in other guests for that level of attention.

The food being served is usually partially or mostly prepared in the kitchen — certainly any prep work such as chopping onions, actually cooking crêpes, etc, is done there. The waiter then does the final assembly or cooking on the trolley at the side of the restaurant customer’s table. This might involve flambéing an item, or carving it, or tossing a salad.

The trolley is equipped with a burner for cooking, that can be powered by gas, electricity, or spirits. Some trolleys will have a cold drawer as well. All will have a chopping board and cutlery drawer, and be equipped with the necessary utensils for what the restaurant offers from the trolley. There will also be on the trolley a selection of basic condiments such as mustards, Worcestershire sauce, oil, vinegar, etc.

The various types of trolleys that use the core concept Gueridon service :

Hors d’oeuvre Varies Trolley

It displays 10 to 12 varieties of appetizers. The containers holding appetizers are placed over ice. The trolley is designed in such a way that it has provisions for holding ice and containers. It has adequate cold half plates, necessary service gear to transfer the hors d’oeuvre selected by the guest on the cold half plate, and the appropriate accompanying sauces.

Salad Trolley

It has half plates and bowls, underplates, containers with prepared ingredients, salad dressings, and seasonings that are required to prepare the salads. Salad dressings may either be prepared on the trolley in the presence of guests or the kitchen.

Flambe Trolleys

These have a gas burner or flare lamp which is fixed on the trolley to the level of the top surface. Carving trolley has a carving board that is placed over chafing dishes during carving to retain the heat of the meat. A trolley may have a single or double burner. Double burner trolley is necessary when the pastry finished food is to be held hot during the preparation. One burner is used for keeping the food hot while the other is used for cooking.

Liqueur Trolley

It has assorted glasses measure ice bucket, spirit and liqueur bottles, carafes, etc. It may also have cigars cigar cutter and a lighter

Cheese Trolley

It has a variety of cheeses, cheese board, and cheese knife for cutting the cheese, and appropriate accompaniments for cheese. The surface of the trolley is normally in marble and has translucent dome to cover the top. Cheese selected by the guest is portioned and plated on the gueridon trolley, and then served to the guest from his/her right.

-- OR --

What are the different types of trolleys used in the restaurants practicing gueridon service? List different food preparation techniques used for gueridon service. (6+4=10)


The various types of trolleys used in restaurants practicing gueridon service :

Hors d’oeuvre Varies Trolley

It displays 10 to 12 varieties of appetizers. The containers holding appetizers are placed over ice. The trolley is designed in such a way that it has provisions for holding ice and containers. It has adequate cold half plates, necessary service gear to transfer the hors d’oeuvre selected by the guest on the cold half plate, and the appropriate accompanying sauces.

Salad Trolley

It has half plates and bowls, underplates, containers with prepared ingredients, salad dressings, and seasonings that are required to prepare the salads. Salad dressings may either be prepared on the trolley in the presence of guests or the kitchen.

Flambe Trolleys

These have a gas burner or flare lamp which is fixed on the trolley to the level of the top surface. Carving trolley has a carving board that is placed over chafing dishes during carving to retain the heat of the meat. A trolley may have a single or double burner. Double burner trolley is necessary when the pastry finished food is to be held hot during the preparation. One burner is used for keeping the food hot while the other is used for cooking.

Liqueur Trolley

It has assorted glasses measure ice bucket, spirit and liqueur bottles, carafes, etc. It may also have cigars cigar cutter and a lighter

Cheese Trolley

It has a variety of cheeses, cheese board, and cheese knife for cutting the cheese, and appropriate accompaniments for cheese. The surface of the trolley is normally in marble and has translucent dome to cover the top. Cheese selected by the guest is portioned and plated on the gueridon trolley, and then served to the guest from his/her right.

Different food preparation techniques used for gueridon service :

Tossing/Mixing

It is the process of combining main ingredients with the appropriate salad dressings, sauces, cream, liqueur in a mixing bowl or plate. The sauces or dressings may be prepared in the kitchen and brought to the trolley or made in the presence of the guests. Generally, sauces, such as mayonnaise and hollandaise are prepared in the kitchen and their derivatives, such as tartare (mayonnaise), mousseline (hollandaise), etc. are made on the trolley.

Cooking

Sauté is the ideal type of cooking on the gueridon. In sauté preparations, dishes are cooked in a small amount of hot oil for a very short period. Sirloin, tournedos, minute steaks, lamb chops, escalope, noisettes, chicken breast, fillet of fish, vegetables, etc. are ideal for sautéing at the tableside. During sautéing, the flavor and fumes that emanate may be enjoyable for the guests for whom it is being made, but for others, it may not be.

Flambéing

Flambéing is setting alight the liquor added to the dish either during or at the end of the preparation. The liquor added mostly is brandy or liqueurs. This glamorous work is done mainly to entertain the guests at the table and to impart the flavor of the liquor to the food. Though the flambé” work is simple and can be done by anyone who can strike matches, the element of risk involved is very high.

 

Q.3. What are the essential factors considered while forming banquet policies for banquet sales? Explain in detail.


Assignment/confirmation Of Function Space: The function space assigned indicates space is tentatively being held and will be held on a definite date should be discussed with the client

Guarantee Of Anticipated Revenue: At least 72 hours (3 business days) before the event, the customer must inform the manager, in writing, of the exact number of people who will attend your event.

Labor Charge: The labor charge must be discussed with the client before finalizing the date and the venue for the event.

Overtime: The terms and conditions and thee charges of overtime should also be informed to the client to avoid confusion at a later stage.

Gratuity & Service Charge: The amount of taxes and charges applicable on food and beverages (alcoholic or non-alcoholic) should be disclosed to the customer during the banquet sales only.

Set-Up Charges. Should extensive function space setups, extensive room set changes, or elaborate staging be required, there will be a setup charge to cover Facility costs and additional labor.

Auxiliary Aids: The client should agree that they will furnish a list of any auxiliary aids needed by your attendees in meeting or function space at least two weeks before your event. they should also agree to pay all charges associated with the provision of such aids by the facilities.

Promotional Considerations: The hotel has the right to review and approve any advertisements or promotional materials in connection with the function. the hotel does not offer or accept any terms or conditions which provide commissions, rebates, or other forms of compensation related to revenue for food, beverage, room, or equipment rental should be made clear to the client.

Cancellation: The client may cancel the agreement only upon giving written notice to the hotel. The parties should agree and understand that in the event of a cancellation, the actual damages would be difficult to determine. Therefore, they should agree to pay the liquidated damages outlined in the sales agreement.

Conduct Of Event: Group agrees to comply with all applicable federal, state, and local laws including health and safety codes. Group agrees to cooperate with facilities and any relevant governmental authority to ensure compliance with such laws.

-- OR --

Explain in detail the banquet booking procedure. Draw a format of Function Prospectus for the function of catering. (6+4=10)


Banquet booking Procedure.

  • Inquiry – First of all, the customer sends an inquiry by phone, written request, or comes to see the venue in person.

  • The manager checks the diary for the availability of date

  • If not available, the manager should refuse politely or offer an alternative date.

  • If available, the manager enters the date and the client’s name in the booking diary.

  • Then the banquet sales team sends a confirmation seeking letter.

  • after receiving confirmation, the sales team prepare the function prospectus with the client

  • circulate the prospectus to the various departments for them to make the needful arrangements

  • then 1 or 2 days before the event they make the function sheet

  • Do the table plan and staff allocation a day before the event

 

Q.4. What do you mean by banquet protocol? Write toast procedure for a formal state function. (5+5=10)


Banquet protocol is standard procedures that are set for everyone to follow. Things like the social event etiquette to the dining etiquette to the attire. Being courteous polite and considerate to others also come under the protocol the guests are expected to arrive 10 to 15 minutes early and dress appropriately as per the event. banquet protocol also apply to the people working in the banquet from the managers to the server the employees are expected to maintain a certain uniform standard and grooming standard and everyone is supposed to have the same grooming and uniform. in some formal banquet, the banquet protocol includes the sequence in which the events are supposed to happen

Toasting is a formal act done for the health and well-being of the chief guest. It is a ritual that starts from the Greeks and Romans to their Gods several centuries BC. Toasts were adapted to the valiant warriors of the dead by the knights and lords and by the seventeenth century by speeches by both the host and chief guest. At the toasting stage, the waiters place ashtrays as the tables because this is also the cue that guests can smoke. It also indicates that the formal part of the meal is over.

Procedure for a formal state function:

  • The toastmaster announces that the host wishes to present a toast

  • When our President is giving a banquet in honor of a visit of the head of state he at the time of Toast first proposes a toast for the health of visiting V.V.I.P. his government and the people of his country. the National Anthem of the visiting head of the state is played first after the toast has been proposed by the president. thereafter the visiting head of the state similarly proposes a toast and the National Anthem of our country is played after it. at the time when the toast is been proposed the person to whom the toast is been proposed remains seated

  • After the toast, the toastmaster announces that the company presently has the chair’s permission to smoke.

  • The staff keeps the ashtrays on the table and serves coffee.

  • the toast is proposed after sweet than before coffee.

  • In India, the speeches are made before the toast.

 

Q.5. Explain the advantages of buffet service and the challenges involved. What are the different types of buffet layouts? (6+4=10)

Buffets cater to cold or hot food & beverage items. Buffets can also be part of a menu like a salad-, first course-, or dessert buffet. Buffets can be themed such as a farmer-, American-, or International buffet. It depends also on the time of the day like a breakfast, brunch, or lunch buffet. It can be even a beverage, aperitif, liqueur, or coffee-break buffet, multiple options are possible. We differentiate between self-serviced and served buffets. Self-serviced buffets are operated in a one-way direction. The guest picks first the plate, then the first courses, followed with the hot items, finished by the dessert section.

Advantages:

  • Fast service.

  • A variety of dishes can be served.

  • High profit and low food cost.

  • Less skilled manpower.

  • Better planned menu.

Challenges faced:

  • Impersonalized service.

  • Wastage resulting in a shortage of food

  • Portion control may not be improvised.

  • Standardization of dishes is not possible.

  • The initial cost is high

Types of buffet layouts

Sit down buffet

  • The space requirement is more.

  • Dishes are displayed and guests help themselves or assisted service is there.

  • Common for both informal and formal functions.

  • Popular for the wedding reception.

Standing buffet

  • Where space is minimum this type of buffet is ideal.

  • People stand and consume their meals.

  • Popular in case of dealers meet etc.

Fork buffet

  • Simply where flatware is used.

  • When people stand and eat, it is not convenient to use a knife, hence fork is convenient to use.

Finger buffet

  • No cutlery is required

  • Ideal for Indian food and finger buffet is popular for wedding reception

  • Popular in the smaller establishments and outdoor catering.

Cold buffet

  • Display of cold cuts and cold hors’ d oeuvre are served.

  • Popular in the western world.

Smorgasbord

  • It is a Swedish word that refers to the type of Scandinavian buffet style in Swedish cuisine.

  • In Norway, it is called cold bord and Denmark Kolde bord.

  • It’s typically a holiday or feast at which a family can help themselves from a lavish buffet in front of the lake.

Display buffet

  • Display of ice carving, tallow sculpture, butter sculpture (centerpiece)

  • Salad display.

  • Live counter

  • Tawa counter

 

Q.6. Plan two menus for breakfast buffet for a restaurant of a hotel located at Agra catering to a group of tourists – 60 pax, from France, England, Japan as well as a few NRIs who are also part of the group. The group will stay at the hotel for two days. What time do you think the buffet should be made open to the group? Give logical reasons. (4+4+2=10)


Menu – 1

  • Fresh fruit juices ( Mixed fruit )

  • Buttermilk

  • Coffee

  • Tea

  • Smoked salmon

  • Sausages

  • Meat cuts

  • Egg preparations ( boiled egg, poached egg, scrambled egg, Spanish omelet)

  • White bread

  • Brown bread

  • Multi-Grain Bread

  • Pancakes with whipped cream

  • Muesli

  • Chocolate donuts

  • Flavored yogurt ( strawberry, mango, blueberry )

  • Idli sambhar

  • Paranthe (plain/aloo)

  • Vada sambhar

Menu – 2

  • Fresh fruit juices ( orange, pineapple, watermelon, ABC )

  • Vanilla milkshake

  • Coffee

  • Tea

  • Smoked salmon

  • Sausages Bacon

  • Egg preparations ( boiled egg, poached egg, scrambled egg, mushroom spinach omelet)

  • White bread

  • Brown bread

  • Multi-Grain bread

  • Cereals

  • Choco chip cupcakes

  • Croissant

  • Dosa (Masala/Plain)

  • Uttapam

  • Porridge

  • Aloo puri

The buffet should be made open to the group from 6.30 am to 10 am, Because a lot of foreigners wake up early and some of them might be here for work reasons so usually people get going by 8 am or 9 am so it would be preferable for them to be able to have breakfast before that time.

 

Q.7. Explain the factors involved in designing the menu cover for the restaurant. What are the common menu mistakes and how management can evaluate the performance of a menu? (5+2+3=10)


The factors involved in designing the menu cover for the restaurant are:

  • Physical factors – availability of equipment and facilities needed for the preparation and serving of the menu.

  • Labor considerations – skills, experience, and availability of staff.

  • Guest expectations – menu items are associated with the specific establishment and standards.

  • The variety and psychological factors – several menu items with low quality of product and more basic restaurant service.

  • Appearance, temperature, texture, and consistency of menu items – preparation and serving processes.

  • Time and seasonal considerations – forcing restaurants to include certain menu items or eliminate items.

  • Rating food preferences – focusing on customer satisfaction and analysis of trends amongst regular guests.

  • Patron expectations – relate to brand recognition, clear brand image, and stereotypes

  • Truth-in-menu standards – affecting menu designs. Ex: calories of each dish.

  • Health concerns – affect the entire menu, selecting healthier options.

  • Menu pricing – align the selection of items to the affordability of the restaurant’s customers.

Mistakes

  • Clientele type should be considered and things and decisions should be made while keeping that in mind

  • Type of menu should be suitable for the targetted audience and they should have some interest and knowledge about it

  • Pricing of the menu should be done as such that the maximum number of the target audience can afford a meal from the menu while also keeping the profitability going.

Evaluation of the performance of the menu can be done by:

  • customer feedback

  • checking the sales of intended items are good and as expected or not

  • evaluating whether the profitability per guest is increasing or not

  • A good menu should be able to sell the most popular, important, and profitable dish to the guest through the menu.

-- OR --

How one can classify the equipment for the restaurant business? List the factors considered for the selection of equipment for a restaurant. (5+5=10)


The equipment used in food and beverage outlets can be categorized into ‘heavy-duty’ and ‘light-duty’ equipment. As the name refers, the heavy-duty equipment is too heavy to move and shift. Working tables, refrigerators, bain-marie, deep freezers, food cabinets, and trolleys usually come under this category. On the other hand, the light-duty equipment is smaller in size and easy to carry. Trays, crockery, cutlery glassware, and flatware come under this category.

Heavy-duty equipment: These are large and difficult to move around. So, great care must be taken while planning to purchase and locating them. Once the heavy equipment is located or fixed, it is difficult to shift it. So, identifying the correct locations for the first time is very important. As the heavy-duty equipment is expensive therefore, it is necessary to check its durability and lifetime warranty.

Light-duty Equipment: This category mainly consists of crockery, glassware, cutlery, and linen. As these are small in size, there is a lot of probability of misuse and pilferage. So, great care must be taken when selecting and deciding on stock levels.

Factors to be considered while purchasing Equipment

  • The purchase should reduce labor costs.

  • The equipment should make monotonous jobs quicker and easier.

  • It should look attractive and clean in guest areas

  • It should have long durability for better value for money;

  • The equipment should be easy to operate and maintain.

  • It should increase production and service standards.

  • It must be of multiple uses.

  • It should fit in the available space.

  • Most importantly, the equipment should be energy efficient.

 

Q.8. What are the points to be considered while planning staff requirements for a new restaurant which is going to be launched shortly? What are the pre-recruitment activities which the organization needs to work on? (5+5=10)


The staff number and organization of an outlet depends on its type and size. The service design and the standards to be maintained determine the skill levels of the staff. But the number is always about the number of covers to be served. This is also known as the “staff ratio”.

Points to keep in mind whole staffing an outlet are as follows:

  • Kitchen efficiency

  • Service design and its complexity

  • Equipment and modern techniques used

The staff requirement for an existing outlet can be calculated by the formula given below:

Total covers forecast per shift = Number of staff required /Average productivity per shift

Total Covers Forecast: This figure can be achieved by analyzing the past sales records or guest flow reports. This number may not be accurate all the time. But with experience and practice, we can predict a very close to the actual figure.

Average Productivity: This can be measured by analyzing sales per waiter over a given period or a shift. The other commonly practiced method is to calculate the covers served by a waiter over some time.

Total covers served in a shift = Average productivity per shift / Number of waiters in a shift

The general guideline for specialty restaurant is, for every 30 covers, tow stewards and one supervisor are required, again these numbers are greatly influenced by the complexity of the service design. A 50- cover coffee shop operation requires only three stewards and one supervisor per shift. Because the services offered here are more casual and fewer staff members are required per shift.

pre-recruitment activities which the organization needs to work on are:

  • Funding: At the core of recruitment planning, funding provides a clear heading on the level of efforts needed to run the entire hiring process. The allocation of a budget will outline the course of the recruitment campaign from the very beginning.

  • Time Frame: A timeline must be clearly defined for each activity between the moment a recruiter post a job to the onboarding stage of a fresh hire.

  • Forecasting: The best way to ensure that work goes undeterred is to have an accurate forecasting model to gauge the possible vacancies in a given year.

  • Position description: Before the commencement of any recruitment process, a position description should be developed to reflect the current and future requirements of the position. This also includes salary, experience, skills, position type, other allowances or benefits.

  • Recruitment method: Determining the recruitment method will eventually prove to be beneficial during the hiring and post-recruitment process.

-- OR --

What are the major factors to be considered while planning a restaurant? Elaborate on the points to be considered while calculating space and its requirements. (7+3=10)


Major factors affecting Restaurant’s Planning & Designing:

  • Cost/ funds in Hand:– It means that how much expenses are required or available for the making, renovation, or for operating the establishment. The cost factor is always considered on the priority base and will determine the number & types of activities that can be carried out.

  • Space available:– Space is also an important criterion in restaurant planning because different types of seating arrangements require different amounts of space. The area of the space at hand will determine the number and extent of activities that can be carried out in it.

  • Style of Service:– Style of Service also affects your restaurant planning. Suppose you want to offer Gueridon service to the guest then it is difficult to put carpet on the restaurant floor because it creates problems in the rolling of wheels.

  • Cover:- It means how many people you are making the restaurant or the number of people or pax can be accommodated at a time in the restaurant. The number of covers always depends upon the available space in the restaurant.

  • Type of Customer:- Type of customer you are catering will have a greater impact on the type of restaurant e.g., for the elite class, fine dining is suitable a cafeteria is suitable for office goers or shoppers.

  • Number, type, and size of equipment:- The total number of meals served at any mealtime and the menu composition helps to determine the quantities of various dishes to be produced and the size and type of holding and reheating or finishing equipment necessary in the serving area.

  • Man Power:- In the case of fast food & other outlets where there is a full or semi self-service style, the number of skilled staff required is less as the waiting staff has not to serve on the tables.

  • Menu:– during the restaurant planning process, the menu is the most important factor because it works as a selling tool plus also merchandising the dishes.

  • Sanitation and Safety:- sanitation is related to the cleaning aspect of the restaurant. If your restaurant is carpeted, it will require more time as well as more manpower to clean it. On the other hand, if the floor has hard or marble flooring it can be easily cleaned and there is less chance of spots etc.

The space required for any food and beverage outlet is calculated based on the seating capacity, arrangement, and type of operations. A general guideline is that the guest area should be 70% of the total outlet space. The rest 30% can be for the supporting areas. This percentage may differ from operations to operation. First, it is essential to identify the capacity of an outlet. This can be calculated with a simple formula based on three factors:

  • Expected Guest Flow /Potential Covers: This figure can be achieved by doing market study and competitor analysis.

  • Available Service Time /Operating Hours: This is an outlet opening time for a meal in minutes.

  • Average Meal Time: This is the average time taken to consume one meal in the outlet. This is decided based on the type of operations and the menu offered.

 

Q.9. Read the case and answer the following: (5+5=10)


Mr. Ajit dreamt about opening his restaurant but he had no idea about how to run one let-alone where to begin. He was working with a reputed retail chain for the past couple of years and when he won the lottery, he decided that this is the time to start his little dream and he decided to go back to his small town where his parents lived. The town has about 50,000 inhabitants and is only 20 minutes away by car from a large city. It already has two take-away and five small restaurants that are doing fine. All five restaurants are mid-ranged. A fine dining restaurant opened three years ago but it closed after one year. There is also a pub in the town that offers a limited menu at lunchtime. Ajit is unsure as to what type of restaurant he should open. Money is no criterion to him now that he has won the lottery, but he also does not want to invest in an enterprise that is going to lose money.

(a) What would you advise Ajit to do next? Elaborate.

(b) If you were Ajit, what type of operation would you most likely attempt to open and why?

(a)Considering that money is no criterion for Ajit, He should spend some time researching the needs of the people and town and learn more about their expectations about what they want from an f&b outlet. he should find out about the type of food and cuisine people are interested in and want to eat outside their houses frequently. He should hire some people to do this work and compile the data. He should also invest some amount of money in advertising and should give discounts and vouchers for the initial customers for them to return. working and planning more on employee training and SOPs is also a good practice to increase customer retention. he should come up with a suitable cuisine with an affordable menu for the people of his town making sure that his business doesn’t suffer a loss.

(b)If I were Ajit I would open a Quick Service Restaurant with multiple cuisines that people around the town like to eat like the local cuisine along with some Chinese, Indian Chat items, and other fast foods. I would make a small sitting area for people who want to come in and dine and will keep the menu affordable so that more and more people can come in to eat the food. We can also keep some promotional offers in the initial days to draw more people in. there can be food combos and meals to sell more things to people at once making more profit possible. we can also keep specials on different days to make the sales more predictable and hence accordingly mise en place can be done. if we keep all this in mind and work according to the plan then there are very few chances of the enterprise to fail or suffer any loss.

 

Q.10. Match the following: (10×1=10)

(a) Rostrum

(ii) Podium

(b) Crepe Suzette

(i) Orange Curacao

(c) Irish Coffee

(ix) Whiskey

(d) Scullery

(vi) Pot Wash

(e) Master of Ceremonies

(vii) Toast Master

(f) Banana Flambé

(iv) Rum

(g) Pipe and drape

(viii) Divider/barrier

(h) Cigar and cigarettes

(x) Liqueur Trolley

(i) Herring Bone

(iii) Table Plan

(j) Risers

(v) Stage

 

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