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Application of Computers | Solved Paper | 2016-17 | 1st Sem B.Sc HHA

Topic Wise Notes: Application of Computers


Please note: The answers provided below, are just for reference. Always consult your college professor if you have any queries.

 

Q.1. Discuss Network Topology. Enlist the various network software. Explain any one in detail.

A network topology is the arrangement of nodes — usually switches, routers, or software switch/router features — and connections in a network often represented as a graph. The topology of the network and the relative locations of the source and destination of traffic flows on the network, determine the optimum path for each flow and the extent to which redundant options for routing exist in the event of a failure. There are two ways of defining network geometry: the physical topology and the logical (or signal) topology.

The physical topology of a network is the layout of nodes and physical connections, including wires (Ethernet, DSL), fiber optics, and microwave. There are several common physical topologies, as described below, and as shown in the illustration.

Types of physical topologies

  • In the bus network topology, every node is connected in series along a linear path. This arrangement is found today primarily in cable broadband distribution networks.

  • In the star network topology, a central node has a direct connection to all other nodes. Switched local-area networks (LANs) based on Ethernet switches, including most wired home and office networks, have a physical star topology.

  • In the ring network topology, the nodes are connected in a closed-loop configuration. Some rings will pass data only in one direction, while others are capable of transmission in both directions. These bidirectional ring networks are more resilient than bus networks because traffic can reach a node by moving in either direction. Metro networks based on Synchronous Optical Network Technology (SONET) are the primary example of ring networks today.

  • The mesh network topology links nodes with connections so that multiple paths between at least some points of the network are available. A network is said to have fully meshed if all nodes are directly connected to all other nodes and partially meshed if only some nodes have multiple connections to others. Meshing to create multiple paths increases resiliency under failure, but increases cost. The Internet is a mesh network.

  • The tree network topology, also called a star of stars, is a network where star topologies are themselves connected in a star configuration. Many larger Ethernet switch networks including data center networks are configured as trees.

Various Types of Network Software

Network-based versions of desktop software exist for numerous software types, with the greatest number of varieties concentrated in areas such as communications and security. Network software for communications includes email, instant message, teleconferencing and video conferencing applications. Network software for security includes antivirus, spam filtering, firewall and data-access management applications. Although they are less common, network software versions of office productivity tools, such as spreadsheets and word processors, are beginning to proliferate.

Firewall

In computing, a firewall is a network security system that monitors and controls incoming and outgoing network traffic based on predetermined security rules. A firewall typically establishes a barrier between a trusted internal network and untrusted external network, such as the Internet.

Firewalls are often categorized as either network firewalls or host-based firewalls. Network firewalls filter traffic between two or more networks and run on network hardware. Host-based firewalls run on host computers and control network traffic in and out of those machines.

OR Draw block diagram of computer and explain components of computer.


Components of computer

Input Unit

This unit contains devices with the help of which we enter data into the computer. This unit creates a link between the user and the computer. The input devices translate the information into a form understandable by the computer.

CPU (Central Processing Unit)

CPU is considered as the brain of the computer. CPU performs all types of data processing operations. It stores data, intermediate results, and instructions (program). It controls the operation of all parts of the computer.

CPU itself has the following three components −

  • ALU (Arithmetic Logic Unit)

  • Memory Unit

  • Control Unit

Output Unit

The output unit consists of devices with the help of which we get the information from the computer. This unit is a link between the computer and the users. Output devices translate the computer’s output into a form understandable by the users.

 

Q.2. Explain the Generations of computer.

First Generation

  • Basic component – Vacuum Tubes 1940-1956

  • Processing Speed – Slow & Unreliable Machine

  • Heat Generation – Huge amount of Heat generated

  • Size – Bulky & Non – Portable Machine

  • Instructions – Only Machine Language was used

  • User Friendly – Very Difficult to operate

  • Cost – Production & Maintenance costs were very High

  • Example – ENIAC , UNIVAC ,ENIAC = (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator,UNIVAC = (Universal Automatic Computer)

Second Generation

  • Basic component – Transistors & Diodes

  • Processing Speed – More reliable than 1st one

  • Heat Generation – Less amount of Heat generated

  • Size – Reduced size but still Bulky

  • Instructions – High-level Language was used (Like COBOL, FORTRAN)

  • User Friendly – Easy to operate from 1st one

  • Cost – Production & Maintenance costs was < 1st

  • Example – IBM 7090, NCR 304

Third Generation

  • Basic component –Integrated Circuits 1964-1971

  • Processing Speed – More reliable than 1st & 2nd Machine

  • Heat Generation – The lesser amount of Heat generated

  • Size – Smaller than older computer

  • Instructions –Expensive use of High-level Language

  • User Friendly – General-purpose Machine used in commercial Application

  • Cost – Production & Maintenance costs were Cheaper than the older one

  • Example – IBM 360, CDC 7600

Fourth Generation

  • Basic component –: Microprocessors 1971-Present

  • 8842Thousands of integrated circuits were built onto a single silicon chip.

  • Processing Speed – Most reliable than older computer

  • Heat Generation – Virtually no Heat generated

  • Size – Smallest in size making them easily portable

  • Instructions –Very sophisticated programs & Languages use

  • User Friendly –Easiest to operate

  • Cost – Production & Maintenance costs were Cheapest than the older one

  • Example – IBM 3090, VAX

Fifth Generation

  • Fifth Generation – Present and Beyond: (Artificial Intelligence)

  • Fifth-generation computing devices, based on artificial intelligence, are still in development.

OR What are the limitations of computers?

Limitations of Computer

The computer cannot operate without the instructions given by humans. It is programmed to work effectively, fast, and accurately. The computer cannot think by itself and does not have common sense. It is totally dependent on humans.

  • Depend on the user’s input.

  • The computer has no imagination.

  • Cannot detect an error in logic.

  • An only an expert user can work on it.

  • Cannot take its own decisions.

Some of the limitations of the computer are as follows:

No Self-Intelligence

The computer does not have an intelligence of its own to complete the tasks. They give wrong output if the input given by humans is wrong. It works according to the instructions given to it by the user.

No Thinking and Decision Making Power

The computer cannot think of itself. The concept of artificial intelligence shows that a computer can think. But still, this concept is dependent on a set of instructions. It cannot take any decision. It can only perform the tasks that are instructed by the users.

No Feeling

Lack of feeling is another limitation of the computer. A computer cannot feel like us. It does not have emotions, feelings, knowledge etc. It does not get tiring and keep on doing its tasks. It can do very risky works that are not capable of human beings.

No Learning Power

The computer has no learning power. The computer cannot perform the tasks without instructions. It cannot read the same instructions time and again. Once the instructions are given it will work for one time. It can solve the problems but it cannot learn the problems. It can only work according to the instructions given.

 

Q.3. Discuss the features of Ms-Office.

Microsoft Office is a suite of desktop productivity applications that is designed specifically to be used for office or business use. It is a proprietary product of Microsoft Corporation and was first released in 1990.

Microsoft Office is available in 35 different languages and is supported by Windows, Mac and most Linux variants. It mainly consists of Word, Excel, PowerPoint, Access, OneNote, Outlook and Publisher applications.

Microsoft Office was primarily created to automate the manual office work with a collection of purpose-built applications.

Each of the applications in Microsoft Office serves as specific knowledge or office domain such as:

  • Microsoft Word: Helps users in creating text documents.

  • Microsoft Excel: Creates simple to complex data/numerical spreadsheets.

  • Microsoft PowerPoint: Stand-alone application for creating professional multimedia presentations.

  • Microsoft Access: Database management application.

  • Microsoft Publisher: Introductory application for creating and publishing marketing materials.

  • Microsoft OneNote: Alternate to a paper notebook, it enables an user to neatly organize their notes.

OR List any ten internal and external DOS commands with examples.

External

  1. DELTREE- Short for delete tree, deltree is a command used to delete files and directories permanently from the computer.

  2. TREE- Allows the user to view a listing of files and folders in an easy to read the listing.

  3. PRINT – The print command allows users to print a text file to a line printer, in the background.

  4. FIND – Allows you to search for text within a file.

  5. XCOPY – Xcopy is a powerful version of the copy command with additional features; has the capability of moving files, directories, and even whole drives from one location to another.

Internal

  1. CLS – It is a command that allows you to clear the complete contents of the screen and leave only a prompt.

  2. BREAK – Break can be used to enable or disable the braking capability of the computer.

  3. REN – It is used to rename files and directories from the original name to a new name.

  4. CHDIR – Chdir (change directory) is a command used to switch directories in MS-DOS.

  5. EXIT – The exit command is used to withdrawal from the currently running application and the MS-DOS session.

 

Q.4. Differentiate between the following:

(a) Interpreter and Compiler

INTERPRETER

COMPILER

It translates the program line by line

It assembles the whole program.

The debugging process is easy.

The debugging process is complex as it generates errors only at the end of the compilation.

The object code of the statement produced by the interpreter is not saved.

The object code produced by the compiler is permanently saved for future reference.

It is a smaller program compared to a compiler. Thus, it occupies lesser memory space and has a lower execution time.

It is a complicated process compared to an interpreter. Thus, it has a higher execution time and occupies larger memory space.

It is a slow process.

It is 5-25 times faster than an interpreter.

It is used in the FORTRAN program

It is used in C language program.

(b) Primary Memory and Secondary Memory

PRIMARY MEMORY

SECONDARY MEMORY

Primary memory is temporary.

Secondary memory is permanent.

Primary memory is directly accessible by Processor/CPU.

Secondary memory is not directly accessible by the CPU.

Nature of Parts of Primary memory varies, RAM- volatile in nature. ROM- Non-volatile.

It’s always Non-volatile in nature.

Primary memory devices are more expensive than secondary storage devices.

Secondary memory devices are less expensive when compared to primary memory devices.

The memory devices used for primary memory are semiconductor memories.

The secondary memory devices are magnetic and optical memories.

Primary memory is also known as Main memory or Internal memory.

Secondary memory is also known as External memory or Auxiliary memory.

Examples: RAM, ROM, Cache memory, PROM, EPROM, Registers, etc.

Examples: Hard Disk, Floppy Disk, Magnetic Tapes, etc.

(c) System Software and Application Software

SYSTEM SOFTWARE

APPLICATION SOFTWARE

System Software maintain the system resources and give the path for application software to run.

Application software is built for specific tasks.

Low level languages are used to write the system software.

While high level languages are used to write the application software.

Its a general purpose software.

While its a specific purpose software.

Without system software, system can’t run.

While without application software system always runs.

System software runs when system is turned on and stop when system is turned off.

While application software runs as per the user’s request.

Example of system software are operating system, etc.

Example of application software are Photoshop, VLC player etc.

System Software programming is complex than application software.

Application software programming is simpler as comparison to system software.

(d) Impact and non-impact printer

IMPACT PRINTER

NON IMPACT PRINTER

Produces characters and graphics on a piece of paper by striking it is called impact printer.

A type of printer that produces characters and graphics on a piece of paper without striking.

It prints by hammering a set of metal pin or character set.

Printing is done by depositing ink in any form.

Electromechanical devices are used

No electromechanical device is used.

Faster speeds around 250 words per second.

Slower speeds around 1 page per 30 seconds.

Have banging noise of needle on paper

Works silently

Dot-matrix printer, Daisy wheel printers, line printer are examples

inkjet printers, photo printers, laser printers are examples

(e) Internet Browser and Email provider

Internet Browser

Email Provider

A web browser takes you anywhere on the internet.

It retrieves information from other parts of the web and displays it on your desktop or mobile device.

The information is transferred using the Hypertext Transfer Protocol, which defines how text, images and video are transmitted on the web.

This information needs to be shared and displayed in a consistent format so that people using any browser, anywhere in the world can see the information.

An email service provider (ESP) allows users to send email campaigns to a list of subscribers.

Email service providers are technology companies that make it easier for people to build email lists and send emails. As email marketing has become a more popular marketing channel, more email service providers have sprung up to provide differentiated services.

At the most basic level, an ESP needs to do two things: store email addresses and send emails.

A more advanced email service provider offers additional features, including:

Dynamic content in emails

Email and marketing automation

Lead capture forms

A/B testing of email subject lines and email content

A/B testing of entire automations

Website tracking, to collect more information about subscribers

Segmentation based on what subscribers are interested in

 

Q.5. A Match the following:

(i) Cray (a) Output Device

(ii) Printer (b) 1024 Bytes

(iii) Barcode (c) 1 and 0

(iv) One Mega Byte (d) Super computer

(v) Binary Number (e) 1024 bits

(f) Printed patterns of lines

Solution:

(i) Cray (d) Super computer

(ii) Printer (a) Output Device

(iii) Barcode (f) Printed patterns of lines

(iv) One Mega Byte (b) 1024 Bytes

(v) Binary Number (c) 1 and 0


B Fill in the blanks:

(i) Debugging is a software code to find faults in processing. (ii) Ctrl, shift and Alt are also known as modifier keys. (iii) Hard disk drive is secondary storage. (iv) Machine uses machine language. (v) To reload a webpage refresh button is pressed.

 

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