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Application of Computers | Solved Paper | 2015-16 | 1st Sem B.Sc HHA

Topic Wise Notes: Application of Computers


Please note: The answers provided below, are just for reference. Always consult your college professor if you have any queries.

 

Q.1. What is topology? Explain with diagram.

A network topology is the arrangement of nodes — usually switches, routers, or software switch/router features — and connections in a network often represented as a graph. The topology of the network and the relative locations of the source and destination of traffic flows on the network, determine the optimum path for each flow and the extent to which redundant options for routing exist in the event of a failure. There are two ways of defining network geometry: the physical topology and the logical (or signal) topology.

The physical topology of a network is the layout of nodes and physical connections, including wires (Ethernet, DSL), fiber optics, and microwave. There are several common physical topologies, as described below, and as shown in the illustration.

Types of physical topologies

  • In the bus network topology, every node is connected in series along a linear path. This arrangement is found today primarily in cable broadband distribution networks.

  • In the star network topology, a central node has a direct connection to all other nodes. Switched local-area networks (LANs) based on Ethernet switches, including most wired home and office networks, have a physical star topology.

  • In the ring network topology, the nodes are connected in a closed-loop configuration. Some rings will pass data only in one direction, while others are capable of transmission in both directions. These bidirectional ring networks are more resilient than bus networks because traffic can reach a node by moving in either direction. Metro networks based on Synchronous Optical Network Technology (SONET) are the primary example of ring networks today.

  • The mesh network topology links nodes with connections so that multiple paths between at least some points of the network are available. A network is said to have fully meshed if all nodes are directly connected to all other nodes and partially meshed if only some nodes have multiple connections to others. Meshing to create multiple paths increases resiliency under failure, but increases cost. The Internet is a mesh network.

  • The tree network topology, also called a star of stars, is a network where star topologies are themselves connected in a star configuration. Many larger Ethernet switch networks including data center networks are configured as trees.

 

Q.2. Write short notes (any two):

(a) Operating system

An Operating System (OS) is an interface between a computer user and computer hardware. An operating system is a software that performs all the basic tasks like file management, memory management, process management, handling input and output, and controlling peripheral devices such as disk drives and printers. Some popular Operating Systems include Linux Operating System, Windows Operating System, VMS, OS/400, AIX, z/OS, etc. An operating system is a program that acts as an interface between the user and the computer hardware and controls the execution of all kinds of programs.

Conceptual view of an Operating System Following are some of important functions of an operating System.

  • Memory Management

  • Processor Management

  • Device Management

  • File Management

  • Security

  • Control over system performance

  • Job accounting

  • Error detecting aids

  • Coordination between other software and users

(b) Fourth Generation Computer

The period of fourth generation was from 1971-1980. Computers of fourth generation used Very Large Scale Integrated (VLSI) circuits. VLSI circuits having about 5000 transistors and other circuit elements with their associated circuits on a single chip made it possible to have microcomputers of fourth generation.

Fourth generation computers became more powerful, compact, reliable, and affordable. As a result, it gave rise to Personal Computer (PC) revolution. In this generation, time sharing, real time networks, distributed operating system were used. All the high-level languages like C, C++, DBASE etc., were used in this generation.

The main features of fourth generation are −

  • VLSI technology used

  • Very cheap

  • Portable and reliable

  • Use of PCs

  • Very small size

  • Pipeline processing

  • No AC required

  • Concept of internet was introduced

  • Great developments in the fields of networks

  • Computers became easily available

Some computers of this generation were −

  • DEC 10

  • STAR 1000

  • PDP 11

  • CRAY-1(Super Computer)

  • CRAY-X-MP(Super Computer)

(c) Components of CPU

CPU itself has following three components.

Memory or Storage Unit

This unit can store instructions, data, and intermediate results. This unit supplies information to other units of the computer when needed. It is also known as internal storage unit or the main memory or the primary storage or Random Access Memory (RAM).

Its size affects speed, power, and capability. Primary memory and secondary memory are two types of memories in the computer. Functions of the memory unit are −

  • It stores all the data and the instructions required for processing.

  • It stores intermediate results of processing.

  • It stores the final results of processing before these results are released to an output device.

  • All inputs and outputs are transmitted through the main memory.

Control Unit

This unit controls the operations of all parts of the computer but does not carry out any actual data processing operations.

Functions of this unit are −

  • It is responsible for controlling the transfer of data and instructions among other units of a computer.

  • It manages and coordinates all the units of the computer.

  • It obtains the instructions from the memory, interprets them, and directs the operation of the computer.

  • It communicates with Input/Output devices for transfer of data or results from storage.

  • It does not process or store data.

ALU (Arithmetic Logic Unit)

This unit consists of two subsections namely,

Arithmetic Section Logic Section

Arithmetic Section

Function of arithmetic section is to perform arithmetic operations like addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. All complex operations are done by making repetitive use of the above operations.

Logic Section

Function of logic section is to perform logic operations such as comparing, selecting, matching, and merging of data.

 

Q.3. Differentiate between High level and Low Level Languages.

BASIS FOR COMPARISON

HIGH-LEVEL LANGUAGE

LOW-LEVEL LANGUAGE

Basic

Programmer amiable

Machine-friendly

Speed of execution

Fast

Slow

Translation

Requires compiler or an interpreter.

Assembler is required while machine language is directly executed.

Memory efficiency

Low

High

Comprehensibility

Understandable

Hard to understand

Portability and machine dependency

Portable and runnable in any platforms.

Non-portable and machine dependent.

Debugging and maintenance

Simple

Quite complex

OR Differentiate between Impact and Non-impact printer.

IMPACT PRINTER

NON IMPACT PRINTER

Produces characters and graphics on a piece of paper by striking it is called impact printer.

A type of printer that produces characters and graphics on a piece of paper without striking.

It prints by hammering a set of metal pin or character set.

Printing is done by depositing ink in any form.

Electromechanical devices are used

No electromechanical device is used.

Faster speeds around 250 words per second.

Slower speeds around 1 page per 30 seconds.

Have banging noise of needle on paper

Works silently

Dot-matrix printer, Daisy wheel printers, line printer are examples .

Inkjet printers, photo printers, laser printers are examples .

 

Q.4. Give two examples of each (any five):

(a) GUI Operating system : Microsoft Windows, macOS

(b) Optical Storage Device : disk read-only memory (CD-ROM), digital versatile disk read-only memory (DVD-ROM)

(c) Web Browser : Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox

(d) Output Device : Speaker, Printer

(e) Monitor : CRT ( Cathode Ray Tube ), LED ( Light Emitting Diode)

(f) DOS Internal Commands : DEL- Del is a command used to delete files from the computer, COPY – Allows you to copy one or more files to an alternate location.

(g) Protocol : TCP, HTTP

 

Q.5. Expand any five of the following terms:

(a) UPS : Uninterruptible power supply

(b) ASCII : American Standard Code for Information Interchange

(c) BASIC : Basic Input Output Systems

(d) COBOL : common business-oriented language

(e) EPROM : Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory

(f) LCD : Liquid Crystal Display

(g) SMPS : switched-mode power supply

(h) MICR : Magnetic Ink Character Recognition

 

Q.6. Give DOS commands to perform the following from root directory:

(a) Create a batch file ABC in C drive WINDOWS directory : MKDIR/MD

(b) Rename a file PGDM from IHM directory to PGDAO : REN

(c) Display all files from C:\IHM directory having extension as.EXE : DIR

(d) Delete all files from C:\IHM directory : FORMAT

(e) Hide file IHM.TXT from C:\WINDOWS directory : ATTRIB

 

Q.7. State True or False:

(a) Dot Matrix is an example of non-impact printer : False

(b) Windows explorer is used for browsing : False

(c) JAVA is an operating system : False

(d) Extension of notepad file is.TXT : True

(e) MS Office is an example of application software : True

 

Q.8. Fill in the blanks:

(a) Example of a volatile memory is RAM. (b) One byte is equals to 8 bit. (c) * and ? is an example of Wild character in DOS. (d) Printer is an Output device. (e) Extension of MS-PowerPoint file is .ppt.

 

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