Topic-Wise Notes: Food & Beverage Operations
Please note: The answers provided below, are just for reference. Always consult your college professor if you have any queries.
Q.1. Discuss factors for planning staff requirements. Write a job description of the banquet manager. (5+5=10)
Factors for planning staff requirements
The amount of work is considered so that overstaffing or understaffing doesn’t take place.
The budget is taken into consideration to see how many people can be employed for the desired task.
The skills required should be taken into consideration before planning staff requirements so that there are no skill gaps during the operations
Working hours should be kept limited and if there is more work then more staff should be hired for another shift. This will result in employee retention and engagement.
Staffing should be done in a way to achieve optimum productivity from all the people employed, which will result in reduced labor costs and maximum productivity.
Plans for expansion of the business should also be kept in mind
The job description of the banquet manager:
Job Title: Banquet Manager
Reports To: Sales & Food and Beverage Manager
Position Summary: The Food and Beverage Manager is responsible for coordinating the delivery of all food and beverage for functions held in the Hotel and all details about functions being held in all Banquet and Meeting rooms in keeping with the standards prescribed by management. The position is primarily concerned with front of house activities.
Duties And Responsibilities:
Achievement of budgeted food sales, beverage sales, and labor costs.
Achieve maximum profitability and over-all success by controlling costs and quality of service.
Participation and input towards F & B Marketing activities.
Control of Banquet china, cutlery, glassware, linen, and equipment.
Completion of function delivery sheets in an accurate and timely fashion.
Help in preparation of forecast and actual budget function sheets.
Completion of forecast and actual budget function sheets, Function Summary Sheets, and weekly payroll input.
Completion of weekly schedules. Schedule staff as necessary to ensure adequate and consistent levels of service.
To supervise and coordinate the daily operation of meeting/banquet set-ups and service.
Completion of Banquet Bar Requisitions.
Education: Degree or three years Diploma in Hotel Management or equivalent.
Experience: Previous experience in a similar job role or a minimum of 4 years of experience as a Banquet Supervisor. Experience in Hotel management software and Point of sale software.
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What are the constraints of menu planning? Plan a Hi-tea menu for a continental restaurant. (5+5=10)
Different constraints of menu planning are as follows:
The skill of the staff – The menu should be prepared while keeping the skill set of the staff under consideration, there should be no items or cuisine that require the knowledge or skill; set that your employees don’t have.
Facility Layout/Design – The number of items should be limited as per the facility layout because it can get difficult to do toom many things unless an area or an area that is not constructed for the operations to happen smoothly.
Availability of ingredients – The menu should not contain any items that require ingredients that are not readily available
Availability of Equipment – There should not be any items that require any special types of equipment.
Type of target market – menu should contain items that the targeted market wants to eat and buy. It should be competitively priced to
Seasonality of business – the most items on the menu should be made using ingredients that are available throughout the year and then there can be some seasonally available dishes
Quality Levels and Costs – the quality and cost should be kept in mind and not be compromised at any cost.
Hi-tea menu for a continental restaurant:
Drinks: Tea, Coffee, Hawaiian Colada
Assorted sandwiches: Chicken, Cheese, Egg
Salad Bar: Waldorf salad, greek salad, potato salad
Live Pasta: Alfredo, Marinara, Carbonara
Hot Snacks: pepperoni pizza, chicken lasagne, mini burgers, sausage puffs
Dessert: chocolate cake, fruit Triffle, Carrot cake, Chocolate brownie.
Q.2. What is a Gueridon service? What are the advantages and disadvantages of a gueridon service? (3+7=10)
Gueridon Service is a term used in the restaurant business to refer to “trolley service.” Food is cooked, finished, or presented to the guest at a table, from a moveable trolley. Dishes typically served like this include Crepes Suzette, Caesar Salad, Cherries Jubilee, Banana Flambé, and Steak Tartar.
The food being served is usually partially or mostly prepared in the kitchen — certainly any prep work such as chopping onions, actually cooking crêpes, etc, is done there. The waiter then does the final assembly or cooking on the trolley at the side of the restaurant customer’s table. This might involve flambéing an item, or carving it, or tossing a salad.
The trolley is equipped with a burner for cooking, that can be powered by gas, electricity, or spirits. Some trolleys will have a cold drawer as well. All will have a chopping board and cutlery drawer, and be equipped with the necessary utensils for what the restaurant offers from the trolley. There will also be on the trolley a selection of basic condiments such as mustards, Worcestershire sauce, oil, vinegar, etc.
Highly personalized service. The wait staff prepares or carves the dish and serves the guest personally.
High level of customer satisfaction. The dishes are prepared, carved, or flambéed in the guest’s presence.
Good merchandising device. Guests will be tempted to order dishes that are served from the trolley.
Wait staff can exhibit their culinary, carving, and service skills. The wait staff has an opportunity to impress the guests by demonstrating its cooking, flambéing, carving, and skills to them. It also gives them good job satisfaction.
High average spending power (high revenue/cover). The revenue generated will be more as the dishes served from the trolley are always expensive.
The limitations are as follows:
Slow service. The time taken to extend the service from the trolley is more.
Low seat turnover. The number of times a seat is sold during the operation hours will low as the service takes more time.
Expensive style of service- as it requires more service area and highly skilled staff.
The chance of accidents is more.
More investment in-service equipment.
Cooking in the service area may leave an odour.
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List six types of trollies used in F&B Service. Draw and label a flambé trolley. (3+7=10)
The various types of trolleys that use the core concept Gueridon service :
Hors d’oeuvre Varies Trolley
It displays 10 to 12 varieties of appetizers. The containers holding appetizers are placed over ice. The trolley is designed in such a way that it has provisions for holding ice and containers. It has adequate cold half plates, necessary service gear to transfer the hors d’oeuvre selected by the guest on the cold half plate, and the appropriate accompanying sauces.
It has half plates and bowls, underplates, containers with prepared ingredients, salad dressings, and seasonings that are required to prepare the salads. Salad dressings may either be prepared on the trolley in the presence of guests or the kitchen. Most restaurants make the dressings in the kitchen and the dressing of salads is carried out on the trolley in the restaurant.
Food Preparation, Carving, and Flambe Trolleys
These have a gas burner or flare lamp which is fixed on the trolley to the level of the top surface. Carving trolley has a carving board that is placed over chafing dishes during carving to retain the heat of the meat. A trolley may have a single or double burner. Double burner trolley is necessary when the pastry finished food is to be held hot during the preparation. One burner is used for keeping the food hot while the other is used for cooking.
It has assorted glasses measure ice bucket, spirit and liqueur bottles, carafes, etc. It may also have cigars cigar cutter and a lighter
It has a variety of cheeses, cheese board, and cheese knife for cutting the cheese, and appropriate accompaniments for cheese. The surface of the trolley is normally in marble and has translucent dome to cover the top. Cheese selected by the guest is portioned and plated on the gueridon trolley, and then served to the guest from his/her right.
It has assorted glasses, measure, ice bucket, spirit and liqueur bottles, carafes, etc. It may also have cigars, cigar cutter, and a lighter. A restaurant has typically two to three types of trolleys, mainly preparation, flambeing, liqueur trolleys.
Wine service is important for its revenue potential. The wine trolley stocks and displays wines and spirits and is wheeled to the guest table to stimulate liquor sales. The trolley service is provided in gourmet restaurants and the person who provides this service is a qualified wine butler or sommelier.
Labeled diagram of a flambe trolley:
Houses sauce, condiments, and the menu card
The extended table can be folded down
Houses gas cylinder
Q.3. Give the standard recipe of any two: (2×5=10)
(a) Crepe Suzette
1 x classic pancake/Crêpes recipe
3 tbsp caster sugar
250ml freshly squeezed orange juice (2-3 oranges)
Zest of 1 orange
1 tsp lemon juice
1 tbsp Grand Marnier or Cointreau
50g unsalted butter
Prepare pancakes/crepes. Fold the pancakes into quarters. Tip the caster sugar into a non-stick frying pan and set the pan over low-medium heat. Allow the sugar to melt slowly without stirring and continue to cook until it becomes a deep amber-colored caramel. Immediately slide the pan off the heat and add the orange juice – be careful as it may splatter and spit as it hits the hot caramel. Add the orange zest, lemon juice, the Grand Marnier, and return the pan to low heat to re-melt the caramel into the liquid. Add the butter to the sauce in small pieces, bring to the boil, and simmer gently until glossy and reduced slightly. Add the pancakes to the pan and warm through. Serve immediately.
(b) Rum Omelette
2 tbsp milk
3 tbsp Butter
1/8 tbsp Freshly ground white pepper
4 large Eggs
3 tbsp plus 2 tsp. sugar
1/4 tsp Salt
In a mixing bowl combine the eggs, milk, salt, pepper, and 3 tablespoons sugar and beat with a wire whisk until thoroughly mixed and airy. In a 10-inch omelet pan melt the butter until it begins to sizzle, then pour in the egg mixture. Cook over high heat for about 1 minute, then lower the heat to medium. Keep tilting the omelet pan from side to side with a circular motion to keep the omelet from sticking. Cook until the top is no longer wet, then sprinkle with 2 teaspoons sugar. Pass the pan under a preheated broiler for 30 seconds to carmelize the sugar. Heat the rum in a small pan until it bubbles. Pour it over the omelet and ignite, then spoon the burning rum over the omelet until the flame dies out. Divide it in half and serve immediately, with the liquid from the pan poured over.
(c) Steak Diane
4 (6-ounce) center-cut beef tenderloin steaks or another cut of your choice
1/2 cup beef broth (see Recipe Note)
4 teaspoons Worcestershire sauce
2 teaspoons Dijon mustard
2 teaspoons tomato paste
2 tablespoons butter
1/2 cup finely minced shallots
4 tablespoons cognac or brandy
1/3 cup heavy cream
Freshly ground black pepper
1-2 tablespoons chives, finely chopped
Salt steak and let sit at room temp: Sprinkle salt on both sides of the steak and set aside at room temperature for 15-30 minutes. Mix broth, Worcestershire sauce, mustard, tomato paste: Whisk together broth, Worcestershire sauce, Dijon mustard and tomato paste; set aside. Sear steaks in butter: Melt the butter in a skillet set over medium-high heat. Pat the steaks dry with a paper towel. Increase the heat to high and sear the meat for 1-4 minutes, depending on how thick the steak is. (You may need to cook the meat in batches.)Turn and sear on the other side. Use the finger test to check the doneness of the meat. When the steaks are done, move to a cutting board and tent with foil. Sauté shallots: While the meat is resting, sauté the shallots in the pan, 2 minutes on medium-high heat, stirring once or twice. Deglaze pan with cognac: Add the cognac to deglaze the pan. Increase the heat and cook until the cognac is almost evaporated. Add broth mixture, then cream: Stir in the broth mixture and bring to a boil. Cook until thickened, about 2-3 minutes. Stir in the cream and cook for two more minutes. Serve steak with sauce: If you want, thinly slice the steak to serve. Otherwise, serve individual steaks. Drizzle warm Diane sauce over the steak and garnish with freshly ground black pepper and chives.
Q.4. What are the uses of function prospectus? Draw the format of function prospectus? (3+7=10)
A function sheet also called a function prospectus announces a function in detail to all relevant departments of the hotel. It is copied to the Chef, Concierge, Food controller, Accountant, Housekeeping, Engineering, and any other relevant department.
The information recorded in a Function Prospectus is:
Name of the booking party
Name and address of the person to whom the bill is to be sent
Mode of payment
Nature of function
Date of function
Timings of function
Number of people expected and guaranteed
Price per menu per head
Type of service
Additional charges for special requests
The name of the person making the booking.
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What are the various types of buffets found in a 5-star hotel? Explain to them briefly. (3+7=10)
Types of buffet found in a five-star hotel:
Sit down buffet
The space requirement is more.
Dishes are displayed and guests help themselves or assisted service is there.
Common for both informal and formal functions.
Popular for the wedding reception.
Where space is minimum this type of buffet is ideal.
People stand and consume their meals.
Popular in case of dealers meet etc.
Simply where flatware is used.
When people stand and eat, it is not convenient to use a knife, hence fork is convenient to use.
No cutlery is required
Ideal for Indian food and finger buffet is popular for wedding reception
Popular in the smaller establishments and outdoor catering.
Displays of cold cuts and cold hors’ d oeuvre are served.
Popular in the western world.
It is a Swedish word that refers to the type of Scandinavian buffet style in Swedish cuisine.
In Norway, it is called cold bord and Denmark Kolde bord.
It’s typically a holiday or feast at which a family can help themselves from a lavish buffet in front of the lake.
Display of ice carving, tallow sculpture, butter sculpture (centerpiece)
Q.5. The kitchen stewarding department is the backbone of the F&B operations. Explain in detail. (10)
Kitchen Stewarding is one of the most important support departments of the F&B department hence called the backbone of the F&B operations. Kitchen stewarding contributes to the successful operation of the Food production and service department and without them both the departments won’t be able to perform smoothly and carefreely
It performs the following functions:
Washing kitchen pots and pans(scullery/pot wash)
Maintaining kitchen equipment
Cleaning all kitchen equipment and ensuring hygiene
Washing all service equipment including the ones used in banquets
Sending damaged silverware for plating
Carrying transporting heavy articles
Indenting for new crockery cutlery
Gas connections and upkeep of tandoor
Maintaining ppm levels for sanitizing knives and chopping boards
Replenishment of service ware to various outlets
Q.6. Explain various factors to be considered while planning a layout of a speciality restaurant. (10)
Cost/ funds in Hand:- It means that how much expenses are required or available for the making, renovation, or for operating the establishment. The cost factor is always considered on the priority base and will determine the number & types of activities that can be carried out.
Space available:- Space is also an essential criterion in restaurant planning because different types of seating arrangements require different amounts of space. The area of the space at hand will determine the number and extent of activities that can be carried out in it. Besides, the shape of the space is important in planning work centers efficiently.
Style of Service:- Style of Service also affects your restaurant planning. Suppose you want to offer Gueridon service to the guest then it is difficult to put carpet on the restaurant floor because it creates problems in the rolling of wheels. Similarly, in a kiosk, only a window counter is sufficient to pass on ready to serve prepared items to the customer. In a restaurant equipped for leisurely dining, at least 50-60 cms space on the table is required per person.
Cover:- It means how many people you are making at the restaurant or the number of people or pax can be accommodated at a time in the restaurant. The number of covers always depends upon the available space in the restaurant.
Type of Customer:- Type of customer you are catering will have a greater impact on the type of restaurant e.g., for the elite class, fine dining is suitable a cafeteria is suitable for office goers or shoppers.
Number, type, and size of equipment:- The total number of meals served at any mealtime and the menu composition helps to determine the quantities of various dishes to be produced and the size and type of holding and reheating or finishing equipment necessary in the serving area.
Man Power:- The number of staff is determined by the number of customers to be served at one time, the composition of the menu, style of service & type of the restaurant.
Menu:- The menu is the most important factor because it works as a selling tool plus also merchandising the dishes. The menu has to be planned by the locality or target market and as per the type of restaurant you intend to plan. Its physical layout like menu paper, language, word font, etc should also match with the restaurant’s theme.
Market trend:- The market trends should be kept in mind. The designs and layouts of all the outlets that are doing well as well as the ones that didn’t do well should be studied. And design and planning should be done accordingly.
Competitor:- the competitors, the type of their work, cuisine, and efficiency should be kept in mind as to give a decent competition to the competitors that already exist in the market.
Cost of repair and maintenance:- design and equipment should be done while keeping how the machines and other equipment will get out if there is any repair or maintenance required.
Q.7. For a 180 pax. formal banquet with 15 guests at the head table: (5+5=10
(a) Draw the seating arrangement layout.
(b) Indicate area requirement.
Calculation of the length of the top table:
(15 guests x length of a cover 2′) = 30′
Number of covers on the sprigs
(Total guests 180 – Top table guests 15) = 165
The sprigs should be within the length of the top table.
Assuming three sprigs:
The width of three banquet tables (3 x 2 1/2′) = 7 1/2′
Two gangways with chairs on both the tables (2×6′) =12′
Total (7 1/2′ + 12′) = 19 1/2′
Assuming four sprigs:
The width of four banquet tables (4 x 2 1/2′) = 10′
Three gangways with chairs on both the tables
(3 x 6′) = 18′
Total (10′ + 18′) = 28′
This area is LESS than the length of the top table but there is not enough space left to accommodate another sprig; therefore, the plan can use only four sprigs.
The number of guests seated at each sprig = 165/4
=> 41+41+41+42 = 165
which means 41 people will be sitting on 3 sprigs and 42 on 1. and since people will sit on both sides of the sprig, therefore, maximum covers at one side of the sprig will be 42/2=21.
Calculation of the length of the sprig
Maximum covers at one side (21) x length of cover (2′) = 42′
Area required to accommodate a top table with four sprigs is
(a) Top table-side area
Length of the top table = 30’
Gangway at both the ends of the top table (2 x 4 1/2) = 9
Total = 39′
(Since all the springs should be within the length of the table, calculation of spring width and gangways is not necessary)
b) Sprig side area
Width of the top table = 2 ½’
the distance of Sprigs from the top table = 4 ½ ‘
Length of the sprig = 42′
Space at the end of the sprig = 3′
Total = 52′
The minimum area required for this plan is = 39′ x 52′
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Prepare a checklist (equipment) for an ODC of 100 pax. cocktail dinner. (10)
For Table setting
200xFabric or paper napkins
30xSalt and pepper shakers
10xBus bins – the plastic tubs that hold dirty dishes and food after people have finished eating.
20xServing trays – Trays are necessary for serving all the food.
30xWater pitchers- Try for durable pitchers that look nice as well.
Equipment for buffet
20xTongs – For salads or other difficult to scoop items.
20xChafing dishes – To keep food warm throughout the event
10 L Fuel – To power the chafing dishes
5xlighter – To start the dish heaters
20xServing baskets – To hold fruit, bread, and other objects
20xRolled silverware – Packed into neat bundles for easy grabbing or passing out
10xCutting boards – Used for cutting meats
10xCutting knives – To slice up the meat
For Beverage bar
100xGlasses – For water and soft drinks
50xPitchers – filled with water and ice
20xIce tubs – To hold canned soda or other drinks in containers
10xBaskets – To hold teas, hot cocoas, sugar and creamer packs
10xGarbage can – To hold all the wrappers and other drink garbage
200xNapkins – For spills or to wrap around hot drinks
For Outdoor catering
5xAluminum foil – To cover and protect food items during transportation.
10xHand sanitizer – For keeping hands clean throughout
20xGarbage bags- To keep dirty napkins and rags in
20xInsulated containers – Keep food hot or cold by keeping it insulated during transit.
Q.8. Write short notes on any two: (2×5=10)
(a) Master of ceremony
A master of ceremonies (also known as an MC or emcee) is the official host for a staged event, performance, or party. Normally, a master of ceremonies introduces speakers, makes announcements, and engages with the audience to keep the ceremony agenda flowing as smoothly as possible.toastmaster or master of ceremony is typically charged with the organization of the event, arranging the order of speakers, introducing one or more of the speakers, and keeping the event on the schedule. Such meetings typically include civic events, service organization meetings, and banquets of various purposes. The toastmaster announces that the host wishes to present a toast and leads and guides the sequence of events in formal banquets.
(b) Task Rota
A schedule, often called a rota or roster, is a list of employees, and associated information e.g. location, working times, responsibilities for a given period e.g. week, month, or sports season. A schedule is necessary for the day-to-day operation of many businesses e.g. retail stores, manufacturing facilities, and some offices. The process of creating a schedule is called scheduling. An effective workplace schedule balances the needs of stakeholders such as management, employees, and customers. A daily schedule is usually ordered chronologically, which means the first employees working that day are listed at the top, followed by the employee who comes in next, etc. A weekly or monthly schedule is usually ordered alphabetically, employees being listed on the left-hand side of a grid, with the days of the week on the top of the grid. In shift work, a schedule usually employs a recurring shift plan. A schedule is most often created by a manager. In larger operations, a human resources manager or scheduling specialist may be solely dedicated to creating and maintaining the schedule. A schedule by this definition is sometimes referred to as workflow.
(c) Flambé liquor
high-proof liquor such as brandy, cognac, or rum, which causes a momentary burst of flames during a flambe is called flambe liquor. Flambé refers to the technique of dressing a hot pan with flambe liquors and as a result of the combustion, alcohol’s raw flavor is burned off but leaves behind a subtle, sweet flavor. The technique is primarily executed for dramatic tableside presentation. Flambéing plays a role in dishes such as bananas Foster, crepes Suzette, and steak Diane.
(d) Standard operating procedure (SOP)
Standard operating procedures are written, step-by-step instructions that describe how to perform a routine activity. Employees should complete them, in the same way, every time so that the business can remain consistent. Standard operating procedures help maintain safety and efficiency for departments such as Production/operations, sales and customer service, Employee training, Legal, Financial. A standing operating procedure should never be difficult to read or vaguely worded. It should be brief, easy to understand, and contain action steps that are simple follow. A good standard operating procedure should clearly outline the steps and inform the employee of any safety concerns. The standing operating procedures should be the basis for training any new employees. They should also be updated every year to ensure they stay relevant to the current needs of the organization.
Q.9. Define banquets. What are the different types of banquet found in the hotel? (2+8=10)
Banqueting is the term used to describe the service of special functions in a Banquet which is separated from the normal dining or service area found in the various restaurants within the Hospitality sector, meaning service of special functions for a specific group of people at specific times where food and beverages are pre-selected or determined. Functions take place within banquet rooms (or outdoors, i.e.: caterings) and are under the supervision and responsibilities of the F&B Department and its Head, the overall responsibility though has the Hotel Manager or Assistant Manager. The Banqueting Manager has the administrative control of all functions (applies to larger Hotels/Resorts). Banquet rooms consist of the actual function room and may also feature pre-function areas for registration or coffee breaks etc. Banquet rooms are suitable for both business and leisure groups to hold; meetings, seminars, balls, weddings, anniversaries, etc.
There are various types of banquet services available
Buffet service is very common in events with large numbers of attendees. Guests pass through a buffet line that features food choices on tables separate from the seating area. Guests serve themselves, which allows for convenience in choosing what an individual wants to eat. They then return to their table to eat. Beverages are typically delivered and refilled by attendants.
Finger food and appetizers are presented in a buffet-style arrangement where guests can serve themselves. These are generally gatherings where people mill around the room while eating and chatting.
Food stations, or action stations as they’re sometimes called, include a variety of courses and offerings to guests. Many times these stations are manned by chefs who are cooking or preparing food in front of guests. Popular choices for these stations include meat-carving, pasta bars, sushi stations, and desserts.
Cafeteria-style banquet service is very similar to a buffet, where guests stand in line to choose their food. However, in cafeteria service, workers or servers dish food from the buffet line. This helps control costs since workers have control over portion sizes
In this service, guests are seated and servers bring food already portioned onto plates directly from the kitchen. This is the most efficient type of banquet service and also the least expensive. You’ll frequently see this style at formal events such as weddings, where guests have been asked their choice of protein (beef or chicken, for example) and plates are assembled and sorted by those requests.
Common internationally, family-style service features seated guests with large quantities of food in plates or bowls brought from the kitchen and placed at the table. Guests serve themselves and pass the food around the table.
If you show up at an event and the food is already on the table, you’ve experienced a pre-set service. This is frequently seen with items such as bread rolls, desserts, salads, and beverages. Main entrees generally are brought out from the kitchen in this configuration.
Q.10. Explain the following in one or two lines: (10×1=10)
(a) Physical Inventory
Physical inventory is a process where a business physically counts its entire inventory. A physical inventory may be mandated by the financial accounting department or for the tax regulations to place an accurate value on the inventory, or the business may need to count inventory so parts or raw materials can be restocked.
a raised platform in a large room or hall that people stand on when performing or speaking to an audience.
This meeting is done after the completion of a task to assess the conduct and results of the task and to question formally and systematically to obtain useful insights or information.
(d) Job specification
a job specification is a written statement of educational qualifications, specific qualities, level of experience, physical, emotional, technical, and communication skills required to perform a job, responsibilities involved in a job, and other unusual sensory demands.
(e) Suzette pan
It is a pan ideally used for making a thin dessert pancake, usually rolled or folded in quarters, heated in a sauce of orange-flavored liqueur, and served flambé known as crepe Suzette.
an ornamental cloth or a projection or shelter that resembles a roof. covering hung or held up over something, especially over a tent or an outdoor catering setup.
a call to a gathering of people to raise their glasses and drink together in honor of a person or thing, or an instance of drinking in this way.
(h) Trade fairs
an exhibition at which businesses in a particular industry promote their products and services.
An annual maintenance contract (AMC) is an agreement with a service provider for the repair and maintenance of property used by your company. The service can be of any property owned by your company from the large manufacturing machines creating your products down to the computers and printers used in your offices.
a painted cloth hung at the back of a theatre stage as part of the scenery.
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