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Food & Beverage Operations| Solved Papers | 2014-2015| 5th Sem B.Sc HHA

Topic-Wise Notes: Food & Beverage Operations

Please note: The answers provided below, are just for reference. Always consult your college professor if you have any queries.


Q.1. Elucidate essential factors you will keep in mind while planning the layout of a first-class restaurant. (10)

  • Cost/ funds in Hand:- It means how much expenses are required or available for the making, renovation, or for operating the establishment. The cost factor is always considered on the priority base and will determine the number & types of activities that can be carried out.

  • Space available:- Space is also an essential criterion in restaurant planning because different types of seating arrangements require different amounts of space. The area of the space at hand will determine the number and extent of activities that can be carried out in it. Besides, the shape of the space is important in planning work centers efficiently.

  • Style of Service:- Style of Service also affects your restaurant planning. Suppose you want to offer Gueridon service to the guest then it is difficult to put carpet on the restaurant floor because it creates problems in the rolling of wheels. Similarly, in a kiosk, only a window counter is sufficient to pass on ready to serve prepared items to the customer. In a restaurant equipped for leisurely dining, at least 50-60 cms space on the table is required per person.

  • Cover:- It means how many people you are making at the restaurant or the number of people or pax can be accommodated at a time in the restaurant. The number of covers always depends upon the available space in the restaurant.

  • Type of Customer:- Type of customer you are catering will have a greater impact on the type of restaurant e.g., for the elite class, fine dining is suitable. A cafeteria is suitable for office goers or shoppers.

  • Number, type, and size of equipment:- The total number of meals served at any mealtime and the menu composition helps to determine the quantities of various dishes to be produced and the size and type of holding and reheating or finishing equipment necessary in the serving area.

  • Man Power:- The number of staff is determined by the number of customers to be served at one time, the composition of the menu, style of service & type of the restaurant.

  • Menu:- The menu is the most important factor because it works as a selling tool plus also merchandising the dishes. The menu has to be planned by the locality or target market and as per the type of restaurant you intend to plan. Its physical layout like menu paper, language, word font, etc should also match with the restaurant’s theme.

  • Market trend:- The market trends should be kept in mind. The designs and layouts of all the outlets that are doing well as well as the ones that didn’t do well should be studied. And design and planning should be done accordingly.

  • Competitor:- the competitors, the type of their work, cuisine, and efficiency should be kept in mind as to give a decent competition to the competitors that already exist in the market.

  • Cost of repair and maintenance:- design and equipment should be done while keeping how the machines and other equipment will get out if there is any repair or maintenance required

-- OR --

The menu is one of the most important parts of the restaurant concept. Discuss on the constraints in its planning. (10)

Different constraints of menu planning are as follows:

  • The skill of the staff – The menu should be prepared while keeping the skill set of the staff under consideration, there should be no items or cuisine that require the knowledge or skill; set that your employees don’t have.

  • Facility Layout/Design – The number of items should be limited as per the facility layout because it can get difficult to do toom many things unless an area or an area that is not constructed for the operations to happen smoothly.

  • Availability of ingredients – The menu should not contain any items that require ingredients that are not readily available

  • Availability of Equipment – There should not be any items that require any special types of equipment.

  • Type of target market – menu should contain items that the targeted market wants to eat and buy. It should be competitively priced to

  • Seasonality of business – the most items on the menu should be made using ingredients that are available throughout the year and then there can be some seasonally available dishes

  • Quality Levels and Costs – the quality and cost should be kept in mind and not be compromised at any cost.


Q.2. What are the various types of banquets? Explain in detail the banquet booking procedure. (10)

There are various types of banquet services available


Buffet service is very common in events with large numbers of attendees. Guests pass through a buffet line that features food choices on tables separate from the seating area. Guests serve themselves, which allows for convenience in choosing what an individual wants to eat. They then return to their table to eat. Beverages are typically delivered and refilled by attendants.


Finger food and appetizers are presented in a buffet-style arrangement where guests can serve themselves. These are generally gatherings where people mill around the room while eating and chatting.

Food Stations

Food stations, or action stations as they’re sometimes called, include a variety of courses and offerings to guests. Many times these stations are manned by chefs who are cooking or preparing food in front of guests. Popular choices for these stations include meat-carving, pasta bars, sushi stations, and desserts.


Cafeteria-style banquet service is very similar to a buffet, where guests stand in line to choose their food. However, in cafeteria service, workers or servers dish food from the buffet line. This helps control costs since workers have control over portion sizes


In this service, guests are seated and servers bring food already portioned onto plates directly from the kitchen. This is the most efficient type of banquet service and also the least expensive. You’ll frequently see this style at formal events such as weddings, where guests have been asked their choice of protein (beef or chicken, for example) and plates are assembled and sorted by those requests.


Common internationally, family-style service features seated guests with large quantities of food in plates or bowls brought from the kitchen and placed at the table. Guests serve themselves and pass the food around the table.


If you show up at an event and the food is already on the table, you’ve experienced a pre-set service. This is frequently seen with items such as bread rolls, desserts, salads, and beverages. Main entrees generally are brought out from the kitchen in this configuration.

Banquet Booking Procedure:

  • Inquiry – First of all, the customer sends an inquiry by phone, written request, or comes to see the venue in person.

  • The manager checks the diary for the availability of date

  • If not available, the manager should refuse politely or offer an alternative date.

  • If available, the manager enters the date and the client’s name in the booking diary.

  • Then the banquet sales team sends a confirmation seeking letter.

  • after receiving confirmation, the sales team prepare the function prospectus with the client

  • circulate the prospectus to the various departments for them to make the needful arrangements

  • then 1 or 2 days before the event they make the function sheet

  • Do the table plan and staff allocation a day before the event

-- OR --

Enlist the duties and responsibilities of a Banquet Manager. (10)

Duties And Responsibilities of a banquet manager:

  • Achievement of budgeted food sales, beverage sales, and labor costs.

  • Achieve maximum profitability and over-all success by controlling costs and quality of service.

  • Participation and input towards F & B Marketing activities.

  • Control of Banquet china, cutlery, glassware, linen, and equipment.

  • Completion of function delivery sheets in an accurate and timely fashion.

  • Help in preparation of forecast and actual budget function sheets.

  • Completion of forecast and actual budget function sheets, Function Summary Sheets, and weekly payroll input.

  • Completion of weekly schedules. Schedule staff as necessary to ensure adequate and consistent levels of service.

  • To supervise and coordinate the daily operation of meeting/banquet set-ups and service.

  • Completion of Banquet Bar Requisitions.


Q.3. Discuss the role and importance of the kitchen stewarding department in a hotel. (10)

Kitchen Stewarding is one of the most essential support departments of the F&B department hence called the backbone of the F&B operations. Kitchen stewarding contributes to the successful operation of the Food production and service department and without them, both departments won’t be able to perform smoothly and carefreely

It is important because they perform the following functions:

  • Washing kitchen pots and pans(scullery/pot wash)

  • Maintaining kitchen equipment

  • Cleaning all kitchen equipment and ensuring hygiene

  • Garbage disposal

  • Washing all service equipment including the ones used in banquets

  • Polishing silverware

  • Sending damaged silverware for plating

  • Pest control

  • Carrying transporting heavy articles

  • Indenting for new crockery cutlery

  • Gas connections and upkeep of tandoor

  • Maintaining ppm levels for sanitizing knives and chopping boards

  • Replenishment of service ware to various outlets


Q.4. Explain in detail the marketing value of the gueridon service. (10)

  • A restaurant can be compared to a theatre-a live theatre with actors and actresses. When the curtain goes up- the play commences. In the restaurant when the service begins it is similar to that of the curtain going up. Waiters can be compared to actors playing a part in the guerdon service. They have a chance to show off the skills acquired by careful training.

  • A restaurant that carries tempting displays of pastries and desserts have higher sales than restaurants without. Many guests finish the main course and feel their meal is complete. The waiter enquiring whether they would like dessert is no temptation. Even if handed the menu they will not bother to read through the same old stuff. However, if a delightful array of dessert and pastries is wheeled to their table and they actually see what is available very few people can resist-and so a sale is made

  • Flambé work also provides a tremendous advantage for a restaurant. The showmanship and expertise in this very simple but the operation provide excitement and elegance to a restaurant as well as boost sales. The cost of the operation is minimal but the returns are considerable. It may take a little longer but as the performance is at the table and involves the guest they are happy to wait. The dish is personally prepared and this too is special and turns an ordinary restaurant meal into an exciting experience. It also has a snowballing effect. Another table sees the performance and wants the same thing and so the sales increase

  • There are two necessary components to be successful with gueridon work. One is the well-trained staff capable of cooking at the table with style and the second extremely important factor is the space for the trolley to move around the room without disturbing the other guests

  • The advantages of Gueridon’s work to market merchandise greatly outweigh the disadvantages-with the staff and the space requirement and it can be a great marketing ploy in any establishment.

-- OR --

Give five types of trolleys used in the Food & Beverage Service. What are the advantages and disadvantages of a gueridon service? (10)

The various types of trolleys that use the core concept Gueridon service :

Hors d’oeuvre Varies Trolley

It displays 10 to 12 varieties of appetizers. The containers holding appetizers are placed over ice. The trolley is designed in such a way that it has provisions for holding ice and containers. It has adequate cold half plates, necessary service gear to transfer the hors d’oeuvre selected by the guest on the cold half plate, and the appropriate accompanying sauces.

Salad Trolley

It has half plates and bowls, underplates, containers with prepared ingredients, salad dressings, and seasonings that are required to prepare the salads. Salad dressings may either be prepared on the trolley in the presence of guests or the kitchen.

Flambe Trolleys

These have a gas burner or flare lamp which is fixed on the trolley to the level of the top surface. Carving trolley has a carving board that is placed over chafing dishes during carving to retain the heat of the meat. A trolley may have a single or double burner. Double burner trolley is necessary when the pastry finished food is to be held hot during the preparation. One burner is used for keeping the food hot while the other is used for cooking.

Liqueur Trolley

It has assorted glasses measure ice bucket, spirit and liqueur bottles, carafes, etc. It may also have cigars cigar cutter and a lighter

Cheese Trolley

It has a variety of cheeses, cheese board, and cheese knife for cutting the cheese, and appropriate accompaniments for cheese. The surface of the trolley is normally in marble and has translucent dome to cover the top. Cheese selected by the guest is portioned and plated on the gueridon trolley, and then served to the guest from his/her right.


  • Highly personalized service. The wait staff prepares or carves the dish and serves the guest personally.

  • High level of customer satisfaction. The dishes are prepared, carved, or flambéed in the guest’s presence.

  • Good merchandising device. Guests will be tempted to order dishes that are served from the trolley.

  • Wait staff can exhibit their culinary, carving, and service skills. The wait staff has an opportunity to impress the guests by demonstrating its cooking, flambéing, carving, and skills to them. It also gives them good job satisfaction.

  • High average spending power (high revenue/cover). The revenue generated will be more as the dishes served from the trolley are always expensive.


  • The limitations are as follows:

  • Slow service. The time taken to extend the service from the trolley is more.

  • Low seat turnover. The number of times a seat is sold during the operation hours will be low as the service takes more time.

  • Expensive style of service- as it requires more service area and highly skilled staff.

  • The chance of accidents is more.

  • More investment in-service equipment.

  • Cooking in the service area may leave an odour.


Q.5. Elaborate on the types of buffet found in hotels. (10)

Types of buffet found in a five-star hotel:

Sit down buffet

  • The space requirement is more.

  • Dishes are displayed and guests help themselves or assisted service is there.

  • Common for both informal and formal functions.

  • Popular for the wedding reception.

Standing buffet

  • Where space is minimum this type of buffet is ideal.

  • People stand and consume their meals.

  • Popular in case of dealers meet etc.

Fork buffet

  • Simply where flatware is used.

  • When people stand and eat, it is not convenient to use a knife, hence fork is convenient to use.

Finger buffet

  • No cutlery is required

  • Ideal for Indian food and finger buffet is popular for wedding reception

  • Popular in the smaller establishments and outdoor catering.

Cold buffet

  • Displays of cold cuts and cold hors’ d oeuvre are served.

  • Popular in the western world.


  • It is a Swedish word that refers to the type of Scandinavian buffet style in Swedish cuisine.

  • In Norway, it is called cold bord and Denmark Kolde bord.

  • It’s typically a holiday or feast at which a family can help themselves from a lavish buffet in front of the lake.

Display buffet

  • Display of ice carving, tallow sculpture, butter sculpture (centerpiece)

  • Salad display.

  • Live counter

  • Tawa counter


Q.6. Give the standard recipe of the flambé dishes (any two): (2×5=10)

(a) Steak Diane

  • 4 (6-ounce) center-cut beef tenderloin steaks or another cut of your choice

  • Salt

  • 1/2 cup beef broth (see Recipe Note)

  • 4 teaspoons Worcestershire sauce

  • 2 teaspoons Dijon mustard

  • 2 teaspoons tomato paste

  • 2 tablespoons butter

  • 1/2 cup finely minced shallots

  • 4 tablespoons cognac or brandy

  • 1/3 cup heavy cream

  • Freshly ground black pepper

  • 1-2 tablespoons chives, finely chopped

Salt steak and let sit at room temp: Sprinkle salt on both sides of the steak and set aside at room temperature for 15-30 minutes. Mix broth, Worcestershire sauce, mustard, tomato paste: Whisk together broth, Worcestershire sauce, Dijon mustard and tomato paste; set aside. Sear steaks in butter: Melt the butter in a skillet set over medium-high heat. Pat the steaks dry with a paper towel. Increase the heat to high and sear the meat for 1-4 minutes, depending on how thick the steak is. (You may need to cook the meat in batches.)Turn and sear on the other side. Use the finger test to check the doneness of the meat. When the steaks are done, move to a cutting board and tent with foil. Sauté shallots: While the meat is resting, sauté the shallots in the pan, 2 minutes on medium-high heat, stirring once or twice. Deglaze pan with cognac: Add the cognac to deglaze the pan. Increase the heat and cook until the cognac is almost evaporated. Add broth mixture, then cream: Stir in the broth mixture and bring to a boil. Cook until thickened, about 2-3 minutes. Stir in the cream and cook for two more minutes. Serve steak with sauce: If you want, thinly slice the steak to serve. Otherwise, serve individual steaks. Drizzle warm Diane sauce over the steak and garnish with freshly ground black pepper and chives.

(b) Crêpe Suzette

  • 1 x classic pancake/Crêpes recipe

  • 3 tbsp caster sugar

  • 250ml freshly squeezed orange juice (2-3 oranges)

  • Zest of 1 orange

  • 1 tsp lemon juice

  • 1 tbsp Grand Marnier or Cointreau

  • 50g unsalted butter

Prepare pancakes/crepes. Fold the pancakes into quarters. Tip the caster sugar into a non-stick frying pan and set the pan over low-medium heat. Allow the sugar to melt slowly without stirring and continue to cook until it becomes a deep amber-colored caramel. Immediately slide the pan off the heat and add the orange juice – be careful as it may splatter and spit as it hits the hot caramel. Add the orange zest, lemon juice, the Grand Marnier, and return the pan to low heat to re-melt the caramel into the liquid. Add the butter to the sauce in small pieces, bring to the boil, and simmer gently until glossy and reduced slightly. Add the pancakes to the pan and warm through. Serve immediately.

(c) Peach flambé

  • 1/4 cup (60 ml) butter

  • 1/2 cup (125 ml) brown sugar

  • 4 peaches, unpeeled, each cut into 8 wedges

  • 1/4 cup (60 ml) cognac or brand

In a large skillet, melt butter with brown sugar. Add peaches and cook for about 2 minutes, stirring constantly until tender. Add liqueur and ignite (flambé). Serve warm with crêpes, over rice pudding, or ice cream.


Q.7. Draw and describe the layout of a formal banquet of 140 pax with 15 guests to be seated on the head table and rest on sprigs. (5+5=10)

Calculation of the length of the top table:

(15 guests x length of a cover 2′) = 30′

Number of covers on the sprigs

(Total guests 140 – Top table guests 15) = 125

The sprigs should be within the length of the top table.

Assuming three sprigs:

The width of three banquet tables (3 x 2 1/2′) = 7 1/2′

Two gangways with chairs on both the tables (2×6′) =12′

Total (7 1/2′ + 12′) = 19 1/2′

Assuming four sprigs:

The width of four banquet tables (4 x 2 1/2′) = 10′

Three gangways with chairs on both the tables

(3 x 6′) = 18′

Total (10′ + 18′) = 28′

This area is LESS than the length of the top table but there is not enough space left to accommodate another sprig; therefore, the plan can use only four sprigs.

The number of guests seated at each sprig = 125/4

=> 31+31+31+32 = 125

which means 31 people will be sitting on 3 sprigs and 32 on 1. and since people will sit on both sides of the sprig, therefore, maximum covers at one side of the sprig will be 32/2=16.

Calculation of the length of the sprig

Maximum covers at one side (16) x length of cover (2′) = 32′

Area required to accommodate a top table with four sprigs is

(a) Top table-side area

Length of the top table = 30’

Gangway at both the ends of the top table (2 x 4 1/2) = 9

Total = 39′

(Since all the springs should be within the length of the table, calculation of spring width and gangways is not necessary)

b) Sprig side area

Width of the top table = 2 ½’

the distance of Sprigs from the top table = 4 ½ ‘

Length of the sprig = 32′

Space at the end of the sprig = 3′

Total = 42′

The minimum area required for this plan is = 39′ x 42′

-- OR -- What is the purpose of function prospectus? Draw the format of function prospectus. (5+5=10)

A function sheet also called a function prospectus announces a function in detail to all relevant departments of the hotel. It is copied to the Chef, Concierge, Food controller, Accountant, Housekeeping, Engineering, and any other relevant department.

The information recorded in a Function Prospectus is:

  • Name of the booking party

  • Name and address of the person to whom the bill is to be sent

  • Mode of payment

  • Nature of function

  • Date of function

  • Timings of function

  • Number of people expected and guaranteed

  • Menu details

  • Price per menu per head

  • Type of service

  • Special arrangement

  • Additional charges for special requests

  • Seating plan.

  • The name of the person making the booking.


Q.8. Explain in detail the advantages of the breakfast buffet service over other styles of service. (10)

  • Versatile-There can be endless variety and variations that can be done in the morning breakfast buffet. It gives the hotel more control over the use of ingredients and the quantity of production.

  • Storage-ability-it saves a lot of space that is used during service of an a la carte menu hence making accommodating more people during breakfasts possible for the hotel.

  • Modularity and Mobility- such breakfast buffets can use a lot of modular and more mobile tables and dishes to serve the food making it easy for the staff to integrate and disintegrate the setups easily and quickly.

  • Functionality-not all your guests have the same appetite level or eating capacity. That means if you serve everyone in standard portions, some of your guests may leave hungry, while others may end up wasting a lot of the served food.

  • The atmosphere-With a sit-down dinner, people usually stay at their own table and rarely go to other’s table uninvited. In comparison, a catered buffet helps your guests interact with each other. They can move around freely and initiate a conversation with an unknown person more easily, thanks to the setting of a buffet catering.

  • Minimizing the costs-A buffet dinner often costs you much less than a sit-down dinner. That’s because a buffet requires fewer servers. Plus, allowing the guests more control over what they want and don’t want to eat means that you can reduce food wastage in your event.

  • Wide range in the choice of the food- Unlike a sit-down dinner where guests are served a few pre-selected menus, a catered buffet lets them choose what they want to eat. They get more options to choose from, which gives them a sense of flexibility.

  • Beautiful presentation of food-It gives the staff an opportunity to present the food items in the best possible way as that will be a common presentation for all the guests, hence a lot of decorative centerpieces are also used making the buffet extra beautiful.

  • The Looks of your Buffet-buffet service gives the whole spread of the food including the egg preparations, juices, bread, and desserts a managed and more appealing look.

  • Helps tackle guests with dietary restrictions- Some of your guests could be pure vegetarian. You may also have a good number of Muslim guests. In either case, a catered buffet dinner offers something for everyone.


Q.9. Write short notes on any two: (2×5=10)

(a) Toasting

Toast will be generally announced by the toastmaster as soon as the sweet course is over and before the service of coffee. The table should be cleared and the glasses filled with wine. No guest is allowed to smoke until the toast is over.

The toast is announced by the toastmaster and is then proposed by the host of the function. After the toast, the toastmaster announces that the company presently has the chair’s permission to smoke. The staff keeps the ashtrays on the table and serves coffee.

(b) Inventory

Inventory is the term for the goods available for sale and raw materials used to produce goods available for sale. Inventory represents one of the most important assets of a business because the turnover of inventory represents one of the primary sources of revenue generation and subsequent earnings for the company’s shareholders.

(c) Conventions

A convention, in the sense of a meeting, is a gathering of individuals who meet at an arranged place and time in order to discuss or engage in some common interest. The most common conventions are based upon industry, profession, and fandom. Trade conventions typically focus on a particular industry or industry segment, and feature keynote speakers, vendor displays, and other information and activities of interest to the event organizers and attendees. Professional conventions focus on issues of concern along with advancements related to the profession.


Q.10. Explain in one or two lines (any ten): (10×1=10)

(a) Smorgasbord

Smörgåsbord is a type of Scandinavian meal, originating in Sweden, served buffet-style with multiple hot and cold dishes of various foods on a table.

(b) Amplifier

an electronic device for increasing the amplitude of electrical signals, used chiefly in sound reproduction, and in combination with speakers.

(c) Carousel

It is a rotating platform or strip that can be used for multiple purposes in a hotel, often used in airports for luggage distribution

(d) Lectern

a tall stand with a sloping top to hold a book or notes, from which someone, typically a preacher or lecturer, can read while standing up.

(e) Float

the period of time by which the duration of an activity may be extended without affecting the overall time for the process.

(f) Trencher

a wooden plate or platter for food.

(g) Clip-Ons

Menu clip-ons are most commonly used in restaurants to advertise specialty items, plats du jour, special table d’hôte lunches offered in an à la carte restaurant, and so on; they may also be used on wine lists to promote a particular wine.

(h) Raffles

It is an event for raising money by selling numbered tickets, one or some of which are subsequently drawn at random, the holder or holders of such tickets winning a prize.

(i) Risers

a low platform on a stage or in an auditorium used to give greater prominence to a speaker or performer.

(j) Requisitioning

the act of requiring or demanding. a demand made. an authoritative or formal demand for something to be done, given, supplied, etc.

(k) Canopy

an ornamental cloth covering hung or held up over something, especially a throne, bed, or tent.

(l) Ante-room

a small outer room that leads to another room and that is often used as a waiting room.


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