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F&B Service | Solved Paper | 2014-15 | 1st Sem B.Sc HHA

Topic Wise Notes: Food & Beverage Service

Please note: The answers provided below, are just for reference. Always consult your college professor if you have any queries.


Q.1. What are the different types of Catering Establishments? Explain Railway Catering in brief.

Welfare Catering

The provision of food and beverages to people to fulfil a social obligation, determined by a recognised authority, is known as welfare catering. This grew out of the welfare state concept, prevalent in western countries. It includes catering in hospitals, schools, colleges, the armed forces and prisons.

Welfare Catering is mainly about providing food at minimal costs. It does not serve the purpose of generating revenue. This kind of establishment does not promote a lucrative food menu. They mostly follow a Cyclic Menu that is good enough to fulfill the nutritional requirements of the customer.

Industrial Catering

The provision of food and beverages to ‘people at work,’ in industries and factories at highly subsidised rates is called industrial catering. It is based on the assumption that better fed employees at concessional rates are happy and more productive. Catering for a large workforce may be undertaken by the management itself, or may be contracted out to professional caterers. Depending on the choice of the menu suggested by the management, catering contractors undertake to feed the workforce for a fixed period of time at a predetermined price.

Institutional Catering

The provision of food and beverages to ‘students in schools or colleges’ at highly subsidised rates is called institutional catering. It is the responsibility of the institutes to provide the students with a complete balanced diet. This kind of catering establishment may be under taken by the management itself or may be contracted out to professional caterers. The food menu in this type of establishment is Cyclic and is mostly based on the seasonal availability of ingredients. The concept is not to earn revenue but to serve their own social responsibility.

Travel Catering

The provision of food and beverages to passengers, before, during and after a journey on trains, aircraft and ships and in buses or private vehicles is termed as transport catering. These services may also be utilised by the general public, who are in the vicinity of a transport catering unit. The major forms of modern day transport catering are airline-catering, railways catering, ship catering and surface catering in coaches or buses which operate on long distance routes.

Airline Catering

Catering to airline passengers on board the air craft, as well as at restaurants situated at airport terminals is termed as airline catering. Modern airports have a variety of food and beverage outlets to cater to the increasing number of air passengers. Catering to passengers en route is normally contracted out to a flight catering unit of a reputed hotel or to a catering contractor or to the catering unit operated by the airline itself as an independent entity.

Railway Catering

Catering to railway passengers both during the journey as well as during halts at different railway stations is called railway catering. Travelling by train for long distances can be very tiring; hence a constant supply of a variety of refreshment choices helps to make the journey less tedious. On-board meal services are also provided on long distance trains.

Ship Catering

Ship catering is catering to cargo crew and passenger ship passengers. Ships have kitchens and restaurants on board. The quality of service and facilities offered depends on the class of the ship and the price the passengers are willing to pay. There are cruises to suit every pocket. They range from room service and cocktail bars to specialty dining restaurants.

Railway Catering

In the mid 19th century railway began in India. With travel made easier, people were transported from one part of the country to another- subsequently requiring food and drink en route. At most of the larger stations, the refreshment rooms were established. The trains would halt for an appropriate time so the passengers could alight and obtain a meal. Third class passengers, unable to afford the luxury of eating in the refreshment room, could purchase food from the numerous vendors on station platform. At the turn of the century, most of the companies decided that catering was a major part of Railway travel. The expertise to run efficient catering operations of a mobile variety was not with regional railway bodies. In the early years of the new century it was decided to contract out the catering requirements to private companies or Hotels with a catering background so the traveler could be more professionally served during journeys.


Q.2. Draw the organisational chart of a F&B department in a large hotel.

OR What are the different types of restaurants? Describe each.

A restaurant is eatery which prepare and sells the food & beverages items to customer in exchange of money. Food & Beverage items are consumed on the premises but some restaurant also offers the facility of take away. These outlets of F&B Service open during breakfast, lunch and dinner and cater to the in-house guest as well as the outsiders. The following are the types of restaurant :

  • Multi Cuisine Restaurant – Multi-cuisine restaurants sere items from various cuisines e.g. the menu of the restaurant can have dishes from Chinese, Italian, and Continental as well as Indian at the same time.

  • Specialty Restaurant – Specialty restaurants are those restaurants where a particular kind of food pertaining to a particular country is prepared and served. The décor also pertains to the particular country.

  • Coffee Shop– Coffee shop is also a multi-cuisine restaurant, which remains open for 24 hrs.


Q.3. What are the duties and responsibilities of a Restaurant Manager?

  • Recommend and monitor a budget and plan for the year.

  • Lead, train and motivate a service team.

  • Conduct daily briefings ensuring two-way communication, training and policy information

  • Check mise-en-scène and mise-en-place done by the team.

  • Control expenses of the restaurant.

  • Develop innovative ways to create sales of the restaurant by up-selling menu items, food promotion merchandising, etc.

  • Meet and greet guests and develop a personal guest database to ensure continued patronage.

  • Schedule staff rotations and duties and organize extra hands when required.

  • Ensure the safety and hygiene of the restaurant.

  • Maintain discipline and conduct staff appraisals

  • Coordinate with the chef for menu offers and operational coordination.

  • Coordinate with other departments for the smooth supply of operational supplies.

  • Responsible for proper billing and cash recovery for services rendered.

  • Resolve guest and staff complaints and grievances

  • Represent the restaurant in Food and Beverage meetings.

  • Conduct periodic competition analysis

  • Coordinates with

Kitchen: on food preparation matters. Kitchen Stewarding: for the supply of clean service-ware. Housekeeping: for cleanliness and supply of linen and flowers. Accounts: for budgets and depositing daily sales. Engineering: on matters of maintenance and safety. Security: on matters of security and safety. Marketing: on matters of sales and promotions. Stores: for the supply of alcoholic beverages, operational supplies. Supervises:- Senior captain, captain, hostess, Servers, and apprentices

OR What are the duties and responsibilities of Food & Beverage Manager of a 5-star hotel?

  • Menu Planning

  • Menu Merchandising

  • Menu Engineering

  • Making Budget for Department

  • Setting revenue & profit target for department

  • Cost Control for department

  • Facility planning for department

  • Organizing training for employees

  • Providing solutions for Employee grievances.

  • He is responsible for recruitment.


Q.4. Answer any two: (a) List the features of a coffee shop.

  • Common items of many cuisines are served

  • Open for 24 hours

  • Décor is general only

  • Ore plated service

  • Less skill are required to perform service

  • Cutlery, crockery , glassware and table are not costly

  • menu pricing is nominal

(b) What is a grill room? Name four menu items produced in a grill room.

Grill room is type of live kitchen with attached restaurant and all preparation is seen by guest through glass walls. All the grilled food are prepared live and served to guest. all the preparations are seen by guest. E.g Daniells Taverns Hotel Imperial, New Delhi, Bukhara ITC Mauraya New Delhi, The Great Kabab Factory Hotel Radisson Blu , Mahipalpur, New Delhi

Four menu items -

  • Basil Grill Chicken

  • Wasabi Grill Fish

  • Gosht Galawat

  • vegetable seekh kebab

(c) What is a vending machine? Where are they usually found?

These are the machine in which packaged food items and beverage are kept for sale. All the items are seen through glass doors. The customers put the requisite money and press the button for dispensing items. The machine dispensed the item and it is collected from the base of the machine. Usually found in malls, airports, railway stations etc.

(d) What are fast food outlets? Name three Indian and three international brands.

A fast food restaurant, also known as a quick service restaurant (QSR) within the industry, is a specific type of restaurant that serves fast food cuisine and has minimal table service. The food served in fast food restaurants is typically part of a “meat-sweet diet”, offered from a limited menu, cooked in bulk in advance and kept hot, finished and packaged to order, and usually available for take away, though seating may be provided. Fast food restaurants are typically part of a restaurant chain or franchise operation that provides standardized ingredients and/or partially prepared foods and supplies to each restaurant through controlled supply channels. The term “fast food” was recognized in a dictionary by Merriam–Webster in 1951.

Some emerging Indian food chains include Wow! Momo, Haldiram’s, Faaso’s and Café Coffee Day.

International brands dominant include McDonald’s, Burger King and Wendy’s.


Q.5. Classify non-alcoholic beverages with suitable examples.

Stimulating drink/beverage: These are consumed to stimulate our mental and physical activities. Eg. Tea and coffee

Refreshing drink/beverage: These are drinks that are taken to make up for the fluid loss (due to perspiration) of our body. Eg. Nimbu Pani, water, syrups, soft drinks, tonic water, etc.

Nourishing drink/ beverage: Beverage consumed to provide nutrients to the body. Ex. Milk-based products like a milkshake, chocolate drinks, juices, etc.

OR Draw a dummy waiter. List essential equipment required for a dummy waiter

The style and design of a sideboard varies from establishment to establishment and is dependent upon:

  • the style of service and the food and beverage on offer

  • the number of service staff working from on sideboard

  • the number of tables to be served from on sideboard

  • the amount of equipment it is expected to hold.

It is essential that the sideboard is of minimum size and portable so that it may be esasily moved if necessary. If the sideboard is too large for its purpose it is then taking up spacee which could be used to seat more customers. The top should be of a heat resistant material which can be easily washed down.

If a hotplate is to be used then it should be inserted in the top so it is level with the working top. After service the sideboard is either completely emptied out or restocked for the next service. The material used in the makeup of the sideboard should blend with the rest of the decor and theme.

1) service spoon and forks 2) sweet spoons and forks 3) soup spoons, tea spoons, coffee spoons 4) fish knives and forks 5) joint knives 6) side knives 7) fish plates 8) side plates 9) half plates 10) coffee saucers 11) full plates 12) salvers 13) dirty linen 14) check pads 15) assorted condiments 16) ashtrays 17) water jugs 18) bread basket and butter 19) hotplate 20) trays


Q.6. Explain the use of: (a) Still room

Still room is a room which provides items of food and beverages required for the service of a meal and not catered by the other major departments in a hotel such as kitchen, larder and pastry. The equipments commonly found in a still room are:-

  • Refrigerator- for storing milk, cream, butter, and fruit juices etc.

  • Butter machine- for potion control purpose

  • Coffee machine- can be an espresso/cappuccino or cafeteria etc.

  • Large double sink and draining board- for wash-up purposes

  • Salamander- for preparation of breakfast or melba toast

  • Bread slicing machine- for portion control

  • Hot cupboard- for plates, tea cups etc., for plates a plate warmer can also be used.

(b) Pantry

This is area that is attached to restaurant. This area is essential for smooth operations in the restaurant during the service. This is the BACKBONE of Restaurant. It is very essential that pantry should be well equipped with all necessary equipment, machines, cutlery, crockery, glassware are the menus that is being served into that restaurant. The pantry is divided into the following areas:

  • food pickup area

  • silver room

  • still room

  • washup area


Q.7. (a) List various types of tea.

Different Types of Tea and Their Style of Service

Indian or Ceylon blend: It can be made in either china or metal teapots. Usually, both are offered with milk. Sugar would be offered separately.

China: This is made from a special blend of tea which is more delicate in flavor and perfume than any other tea but lacks body. Less dry tea is required than for making Indian or Ceylon tea. It is made in the normal way and is best made in a china teapot. The addition of a slice of lemon improves flavor. Generally, china tea should not be served with milk but sugar may be offered.

Russian or lemon blend: This may be brewed from a similar blend to china tea, but more often it is made from Indian or Ceylon tea. It is made in a normal way and served with a slice of lemon.

Iced Tea: Make a strong tea and chill it well. This tea may be strained and stored chill till required.

Multi Pots: On occasions like reception, tea breaks, etc tea is made well in advance.

Speciality Tea

Assam Tea: It is rich and has a full malty flavor. Suitable for service at breakfast and is served with milk

Darjeeling Tea: A delicate tea with grape flavor and known as the ‘Champagne of teas’. Usually served as an afternoon or evening tea with either lemon or little milk if preferred.

Earl Grey Tea: A blend of Darjeeling and china tea, flavored with oil of bergamot. Usually served with lemon or milk.

Jasmine: A green tea that is dried with jasmine. It blossoms and produces a tea that has a scented flavor.

Kenya tea: This tea is referred to as” refreshing tea”. It is served with milk.

Lapsangsauchang: It is smoky, pungent, perfumed tea. It is delicate to the palate and is said to have acquired taste and is served with lemon.

Tisanes: It is a fruit-flavored tea and has herbal infusions. It is used for medicinal purposes and is gaining popularity since the trend is towards healthy eating and drinking. Often these so not contain caffeine.

Srilanka makes a pale golden tea with good flavor. Ceylon blend is still used as a trading name, served with lemon and milk.

CTC: Machinery processed tea, usually from Assam, Sri Lanka and parts of Africa and South America. The processing has three stages (crush, tear, curl or cut, tear, curl), hence the name “CTC” tea. The resultant product looks like small pellets of (usually black) tea. It produces a very strongly flavored, quickly infusing tea that is often used in teabags.

(b) What are the various types & brands of coffee available?

Types Of Coffee

Instant Coffee: It is a beverage derived from brewed coffee beans. Through various manufacturing processes, the coffee is dehydrated into the form of powder or granules. These can be re-hydrated with hot water or milk along with cream and sugar.

Filter Coffee: Drip brew, or filter coffee, is a method for brewing coffee which involves pouring water over roasted, ground coffee beans contained in a filter. Water seeps through the coffee, absorbing its oils and essences, solely under gravity, and then passes through the bottom of the filter. The used coffee grounds are retained in the filter with the liquid falling (dripping) into a collecting vessel such as a carafe or pot. Ex. Indian filter coffee

Decaffeinated Coffee/ Decaf: Coffee contains caffeine which is a stimulant. Decaffeinated coffee is made from beans after the caffeine has been extracted and contains about 1-2% of caffeine.

Espresso: It is a concentrated coffee beverage brewed by forcing hot water under pressure through finely-ground coffee. Served without milk.

Café Au Lait: This is the simple milk coffee where brewed coffee is added to milk in the ratio of 1:1 making it much less intense in taste.

Cappuccino: Usually equal parts espresso, steamed milk, and frothed milk, often with cinnamon or flaked chocolate sprinkled on top.

Café Latte: Essentially, a single shot of espresso in steamed (not frothed) milk. The ratio of milk to coffee should be about 3:1

Turkish Coffee: Turkish Coffee is coffee prepared by boiling finely powdered roast coffee beans in a pot, possibly with sugar, and serving it into a cup, where the dregs settle. The name describes the method of preparation, not the raw material; there is no special Turkish variety of the coffee bean.

Irish Coffee: It is a cocktail consisting of hot coffee, Irish whiskey, and sugar, stirred and topped with thick cream. The coffee is drunk through the cream.

(c) Define aerated drinks.

A soft drink is a drink that usually contains carbonated water, a sweetener, and a natural or artificial flavoring. The sweetener may be a sugar, high-fructose corn syrup, fruit juice, a sugar substitute, or some combination of these.

(d) List five cocoa beverages.

  • Traditional Hot Chocolate

  • Dried Plum Cocoa

  • Coconut Hot Cocoa

  • Maple Cocoa

  • Mexican Hot Cocoa


Q.8. Define the sizes and the use of the following equipment:

(a) Soup plate : 20 cm diameter (b) B & B plate : 6 inch diameter (c) Fish plate : 12 inches (d) Cereal bowl : 28 oz (e) Coffee cup : 90 ml


Q.9. Define the following (any ten)

(a) Polivit : In this method, Polivit plate which is made up of Aluminum is placed in a container with washing soda and silverware is dipped in the container, with atleast one piece touching the plate. Piping hot water is poured to cover the silverware and chemical reaction cleans the utensils

(b) Brasserie : In France, Flanders, and the Francophone world, a brasserie is a type of French restaurant with a relaxed setting, which serves single dishes and other meals. The word brasserie is also French for “brewery” and, by extension, “the brewing business”.

(c) Salamander : a metal plate heated and placed over food to brown it.

(d) EPNS : electro plated nickle silver

(e) Bain Marie : a pan of hot water in which a cooking container is placed for slow cooking.

(f) Mise- en-place : refers to getting the place ready to prepare the food i.e. Placement of the ingredients in order of the making of the recipe. It refers to the selection, preparation, and arrangement of ingredients before the actual cooking to enable the chef to start the preparation with ease. In other words, it is the preparation work to be done before the actual action.

(g) Table d’hote menu : In restaurant terminology a table d’hôte menu is a menu where multi-course meals with only a few choices are charged at a fixed total price. Such a menu may be called prix fixe. The terms set meal and set menu are also used. The cutlery on the table may also already be set for all of the courses.

(h) Aboyeur : Aboyeur is responsible for hot plate section of the pantry. … Some of the back of the house sections are pantry, dishwashing, hot plate, still room etc.

(i) Accompaniment : accompaniments complement the main food and enrich its taste. … The accompanying food or beverage itself can have a garnish of its own.

(j) Corkage : a charge made by a restaurant or hotel for serving wine that has been brought in by a customer.

(k) Kiosks : a small open-fronted hut or cubicle from which newspapers, refreshments, tickets, etc. are sold.

(l) Trancheur : Carver

(m) Cellar : a room below ground level in a house, often used for storing wine or coal.

(n) Cover : In the restaurant industry, the term “cover” refers to a diner who eats or a meal that is served. A cover differs from a table in that it represents only one of the meals served at that table. It differs from a dish in that it includes the extras that a diner orders, such as drinks, appetizers and desserts.

(o) Food court : an area in a shopping mall where fast-food outlets are located.


Q.10. Translate the following in French (any ten):

(a) Napkin : serviette de table

(b) Head waiter : Maître d’hôtel

(c) Wine waiter : sommelier

(d) Station waiter : Chef De Rang

(e) Appetizers : apéritif

(f) Menu of the day : menu du jour

(g) Spoon : cuillère

(h) Water tumbler : gobelet à eau

(i) Butter dish : Beurrier

(j) Coffee cup : Demi tasse

(k) Soup plate : assiette creuse

(l) Quarter plate : quart de plat


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